Definition of fracture in English:

fracture

noun

mass noun
  • 1The cracking or breaking of a hard object or material.

    ‘ground movements could cause fracture of the pipe’
    • ‘There is evidence that drinking a lot of coffee - about four or more cups a day - can increase the risk of fracture.’
    • ‘The authors conclude from this study that the risk of hip fracture in elderly persons can be greatly reduced by the use of a hip-protector device.’
    • ‘Vitamin D deficiency boosts risk of jaw fracture and gum disease.’
    • ‘Patients without fracture who are at risk for osteoporosis can also benefit from these preventive measures.’
    • ‘The risk of hip fracture increases with aging but the risk of wrist fracture does not.’
    • ‘Possible analogy with material fracture and/or invasive percolation can also be suspected.’
    • ‘That will produce stress or fatigue with an increased risk of fracture.’
    • ‘Nevertheless, the fall in bone density with age makes an important contribution to risk of fracture for at least some fragility fractures.’
    • ‘Today there is a wide range of therapeutic options and several safe and effective medical treatments to reduce the risk of fracture by up to 50 per cent.’
    • ‘Calcium and vitamin D supplements can be of benefit for older people of both sexes to reduce the risk of hip fracture.’
    • ‘Such nanocrystalline ceramics are particularly hard, but they're brittle and fracture easily.’
    • ‘They are potentially suitable for use by older people at high risk of hip fracture rather than older people generally.’
    • ‘The treatment did appear to increase the risk of stroke but decrease risk of hip fracture.’
    • ‘In men the decline is more gradual, but the risk of fracture is serious by age 65.’
    breaking, breakage, cracking, cleavage, rupture, shattering, fragmentation, splintering, splitting, separation, bursting, disintegration
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    1. 1.1count noun A crack or break in a hard object or material, typically a bone or a rock stratum.
      ‘a fracture of the left leg’
      • ‘When fractures occur, the bone is not always broken completely.’
      • ‘A previous spinal fracture is an important risk factor for subsequent hip fractures in both men and women.’
      • ‘Many of the most ancient gold mines, and some of the more famous ones from modern times, were simple gold-bearing quartz - pyrite veins in faults and other fractures in rocks.’
      • ‘The latter do not include typical pegmatite minerals and appear mainly along the tectonic fractures present at this locality.’
      • ‘If a break occurred in the skin overlying the fracture, it must be considered an open fracture, necessitating orthopedic referral.’
      • ‘For an older person a hip fracture is a devastating injury that greatly increases disability and mortality.’
      • ‘This situation raises numerous possibilities for mineral reactions, especially when the fractures transect different rock types.’
      • ‘As the magma in the intruding sill moves updip, the tensile stress on an intersecting fracture above the sill becomes greater, and the tensile strength of the sediments becomes less.’
      • ‘Stress fractures are partial fractures, often hairline cracks in the bone, caused by repeated stress.’
      • ‘Bone scanning is sensitive but not specific for detecting stress fractures, healing fractures, infections and tumors.’
      • ‘Quakes radiate along fault lines, which often are existing fractures in the rock but can also be created by a new line of breakage.’
      • ‘Along with the fractures, bone chips, and muscle strains, I received scars on my back, arms and shoulders, my forehead, and my knees.’
      • ‘He had a skull fracture, was in serious shock and had a compound leg fracture.’
      • ‘My back was broken in two places - one break and one compressed fracture.’
      • ‘Severe pain over a bone might indicate a fracture or an injury to a ligament.’
      • ‘Conditions such as an uncorrected fracture of the shin bone, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis or Paget's disease can distort the ends of the bones and cause knock knee in adults.’
      • ‘Where limestone occurs adjacent to ironstone, it shows various stages of replacement by chert and hematitic material parallel to bedding and along fractures.’
      • ‘All indicate that, even at the greatest depths, the rocks are fractured and the fractures contain aqueous fluids.’
      • ‘Direct injury to the spine may cause a bone fracture anywhere along your vertebral column.’
      break, breakage, crack, split
      crack, split, fissure, crevice, break, rupture, breach, rift, cleft, slit, chink, gap, cranny, interstice, opening, aperture, rent
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    2. 1.2 The physical appearance of a freshly broken rock or mineral, especially as regards the shape of the surface formed.
      ‘obsidian shows a conchoidal fracture’
      • ‘Alteration of this mineral has produced an unusual abundance of vivianite coatings on fracture surfaces in the rock.’
      • ‘It forms attractive dendrites on fracture surfaces.’
      • ‘It is brittle, breaking with a conchoidal to uneven fracture, and it has a hardness of 2.5 and a measured density of 5.82.’
      • ‘Its fracture is conchoidal to uneven, its density is about 3.73, and its hardness varies from 5.5 to 6.5.’
      • ‘The mineral is brittle with a conchoidal to uneven fracture.’
  • 2Phonetics
    The replacement of a simple vowel by a diphthong owing to the influence of a following sound, typically a consonant.

    1. 2.1count noun A diphthong substituted by fracture.

verb

  • 1Break or cause to break.

    no object ‘the stone has fractured’
    with object ‘ancient magmas fractured by the forces of wind and ice’
    • ‘The methodology is based on the integration of a geomechanical reservoir description into fracturing design.’
    • ‘Broken columns of rock fractured from the face are tumbled like a game of jackstraws below.’
    • ‘In the past, areas of Swindon had experienced peaks of high pressure that sometimes led to leakage, burst pipes and fractured mains.’
    • ‘As the characters descend into madness, the camera work also begins to fracture and break down.’
    • ‘Everyone adores this brilliant fractured fairy story and love to sing along and anticipate their favourite lines.’
    • ‘Old and isolated ash stood torn and fractured and afflicted with black balls of fungi.’
    • ‘This inequality leads to fracturing within the stone and eventual disintegration.’
    • ‘The process enhances flakability by reducing fracture toughness, a measure of a stone's resistance to fracture propagation.’
    • ‘The satellite images used in the study also showed the lower parts of the glaciers fracturing and disintegrating in response to the loss of the ice shelf.’
    • ‘His characters are fractured, broken people, who find happiness too late and too unsatisfactorily, if at all.’
    • ‘The development of extensional and shear fractures in volcanic areas is usually related to magma emplacement at shallow crustal levels.’
    • ‘In fact the opening title track is a bit orchestral, though swamped with shortwave radio static and increasingly fractured, distorted bursts of strings, organ and guitar.’
    • ‘She used locally quarried andesite, a brittle stone that fractures into sharp, angular shapes and has a sparkly surface.’
    • ‘In particular he studied magma flow beneath the Earth's surface to obtain a better understanding of volcanic eruptions when magma flows through fractures in the Earth's surface.’
    • ‘It shows fractured blocks of ancient sedimentary rock separated by recent sand dunes.’
    • ‘I squeezed the thing in my claw until it fractured and splintered into a spray of shards and powder.’
    • ‘Blast-enhanced fracturing is a process used at sites with fractured bedrock formations.’
    • ‘Typically hydraulic fracturing is conducted in vertical boreholes.’
    • ‘I kicked and the water fractured, shattered into hundreds of ripples that milled out and scattered over the lake's surface.’
    break, snap, crack, cleave, rupture, shatter, smash, smash to smithereens, fragment, splinter, split, separate, burst, blow out
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    1. 1.1with object Sustain a fracture of (a bone)
      ‘a fractured skull’
      • ‘He testified that his father broke her nose and fractured her ribs.’
      • ‘Signs of osteoporosis include joint pain, difficulty standing or sitting up straight, or fracturing a bone without much force or impact.’
      • ‘Three of her ribs had been fractured and her wrist broken.’
      • ‘He fractured his neck, and broke an arm and collarbone.’
      • ‘She had a fractured left ankle and a right wrist so badly broken that the bone went through her skin.’
      • ‘The scaphoid is the most commonly fractured bone of the wrist.’
      • ‘It doesn't always work: Five years ago in the Alps she landed badly on a jump, breaking her pelvis and fracturing a vertebra.’
      • ‘During podium training, she landed short on a tumbling pass, fracturing her fibula and tearing ligaments in her ankle.’
      • ‘Just because your ribs don't hurt when you poke them, does not mean you didn't fracture or break your ribs.’
      • ‘It was also severely burned and had fractured bones and skull.’
      • ‘I had fractured the bone above the knee and the unbroken part was responding to the reaction of foot movement, but there was no connection, a most eerie sensation.’
      • ‘While riding another horse, he fell and shattered his collarbone, broke his shoulder, and fractured his ribs.’
      • ‘I got injured a lot, mostly broken wrists and collar-bones, but one Christmas I fractured my pelvis at Limerick and was out for four or five months.’
      • ‘He fractured both legs, broke his right ankle and had deep cuts to his forehead.’
      • ‘The mammalian liver can regenerate if a part of it is removed, the antlers of male deer regenerate each year, and fractured bones can mend by a regenerative process.’
      • ‘She has never required any surgical procedures or fractured any bones.’
      • ‘His leg was broken, his cheekbone and nose fractured and he spent eight days in hospital.’
      • ‘A 55 year-old man broke his pelvis and fractured both his legs.’
      • ‘It is quite impossible to conceive of a more serious attempt at killing someone than this because his skull was fractured and bone went into his brain.’
      • ‘The girl broke shattered her pelvis in two places, fractured her left arm and broke her thumb.’
      broken, cracked, splintered, shattered, ruptured
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    2. 1.2 (with reference to a group or organization) split or fragment and become unable to function or exist.
      no object ‘the movement had fractured without his leadership’
      • ‘We're definitely moving in a positive direction, but each time we make a leap to a new level of functionality, things get more complicated and fractured and difficult for a while.’
      • ‘The women's movement in Egypt is multi-faceted and fractured.’
      • ‘So, where do cultural organizations and cultural experiences fit in this increasingly fractured world?’
      • ‘It's a story of passages, of a family that we have known for many years fracturing and moving on in their separate ways.’
      • ‘Is it any wonder that the country grows restive and fractured as common sense seeps away from law enforcement?’
      • ‘Without goals, everyone will slip into their own direction, and fracture any sense of unity in the work that is produced.’
      • ‘With many factions and continuous fracturing, the young country struggled to gain a sense of national union.’
      • ‘So, at the moment you still have security forces that are essentially fractured into two camps.’
      • ‘Large organisations are constructed to fracture and dilute accountability.’
      • ‘But the splits that fractured the women's movement are hairline cracks compared with the schisms within the Pankhurst family itself.’
      • ‘All were in the same community - fractured, split apart, nursing bitterness.’
      • ‘The Guild fractured and our leaders began attacking one another, so the whole thing collapsed.’
      • ‘As a consultant, it's not unusual for me to discover a workplace fractured into territories.’
      • ‘Generations are split up and badly fractured like never before.’
      • ‘We have our high points but then we fracture and split.’
      • ‘The cracks are reappearing; without a common sense of moral purpose, the party will fracture into its constituent, warring factions.’
      • ‘For a time, the revolt chilled the atmosphere in which they had to operate and stimulated a vigorous debate within their fracturing movement about the appropriate means to effect the desired end of emancipation.’
      • ‘In so doing, the organisation can fracture families and, potentially, tie youngsters into a spiral of irresponsible and dangerous behaviour.’
      • ‘By the time he had resigned from his position he'd fractured the organization in two and been accused by his own department as being ‘dangerous’.’
      • ‘Already the wind farm legacy has left fractured and divided host communities, where developers have used the divide and rule strategy by creating winners and losers.’
      break apart, rupture, fissure, snap, come apart, splinter
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    3. 1.3as adjective fractured (of speech or a language) faltering and full of mistakes; broken.
      ‘they'd misinterpreted his fractured English’
      • ‘Half-understood insults and ironic declarations of love converge into a disorienting swirl of fractured English and pidgin Arabic.’
      • ‘Enid spoke fractured English at best, and I could hear the rest of the mob shouting in the background.’
      • ‘On the other hand, I love sketching building plans and am well capable of pursuing recalcitrant plumbers and joiners in fractured French.’
      • ‘They both jabber away in fractured English and occasionally stroke each other's cheeks.’
      • ‘One of Yasim's family hands me an acoustic guitar which, he explains in fractured English, was left here by a missionary.’
      • ‘In the process he gave perhaps a more accurate impression of the hard professional operator lurking behind the fractured English and the cartoon-like gestures.’
      • ‘But in China these days, fractured French and its equally mal-appropriate cousins are no laughing matter.’

Origin

Late Middle English: from French, or from Latin fractura, from frangere ‘to break’.

Pronunciation

fracture

/ˈfraktʃə/