Main definitions of file in English

: filé1file2file3file4

filé1

noun

mass nounNorth American
  • Pounded or powdered sassafras leaves used to flavour and thicken soup, especially gumbo.

    • ‘"It's a sin to eat gumbo without filé."’
    • ‘Filé has since become a signature flavor in Cajun cooking, adding authentic Louisiana character to mouth-watering gumbos and your own favorite dishes.’
    • ‘Likewise filé powder made from the dried leaves of the sassafras tree would be added during the final stages of cooking to give the gumbo a ‘stringy’ texture.’

Origin

Mid 19th century: from French, past participle of filer ‘to twist’.

Pronunciation

filé

/ˈfiːleɪ/

Main definitions of file in English

: filé1file2file3file4

file2

noun

  • 1A folder or box for holding loose papers together and in order for easy reference.

    ‘a file of correspondence’
    • ‘And then, today, I came across two large box files stuffed with paper copies of the correspondence, all neatly filed in date order.’
    • ‘In Australia he worked for a time at the sprawling Department of Veterans, one of hundreds silently compiling files which lined acres of wall.’
    • ‘The man dropped the files, papers flying out of the folders and floating softly to the ground.’
    • ‘You can hardly see him behind the files on his Commons desk.’
    • ‘Files and thus loose documents belonging to files were color coded so I knew which specific stack they were in or which folder they were filed into.’
    • ‘The admiral pushed the file towards the edge of the desk.’
    • ‘Parker was kind of hidden behind the files when I entered her office.’
    • ‘His brief case contains many fat pink paper files.’
    • ‘Preparation of products using recycled items will be the prime focus and the items will include cardboard files, paper cups and bags.’
    • ‘The remaining wall was home to a huge bookshelf, with files lining the top and bottom half.’
    • ‘Some held thin paper files and sniffed importantly.’
    • ‘The last drawer contained a stack full of files and papers.’
    • ‘She found lots of files and other papers, but no keys.’
    • ‘As she started humming the tune and pulled out a stack of papers from the only file in her filing cabinet, the phone rang.’
    • ‘I pulled out all his drawers, rummaged through his files and papers.’
    • ‘If they did not have the required number, they continued selecting files in reverse alphabetic order starting with the letter M.’
    • ‘Her face remained straight, with no emotion and she quickly grabbed her files and moved towards the door to follow the other doctor.’
    • ‘He moved a pile of old work papers and case files from off the coffee table and placed his bowl of broth down.’
    • ‘She handed him the file she had tucked behind her back.’
    • ‘He took a handful of papers from the file he held, then placed the folder on Tanner's desk.’
    folder, portfolio, binder, box, document case
    View synonyms
    1. 1.1 A collection of information about a particular person or thing.
      ‘MI5 were keeping a file on him’
      • ‘Parents claim their children were put at risk when a model agency left behind hundreds of files containing photographs and personal details when it moved offices.’
      • ‘They found that nearly one-fifth of them still contained sensitive information such as company files and bank-account details.’
      • ‘If you are declined credit, the lender should provide the main reason for this - whether the decision was based upon a credit score, information held on a credit file or its own policy.’
      • ‘The information revealed in the files was astonishing.’
      • ‘A number of stories, partly fuelled by the British government's refusal to release all the relevant files, have grown up around Hess and his mission.’
      • ‘A child or young person can ask to have access to the information in their file.’
      • ‘My information is that the files pertaining to this particular arrest were sitting on the desk of the DPP for some time previously.’
      • ‘Being newly refurbished, the premises now houses files, books and information on every imaginable topic.’
      • ‘By the time he emerges from school and the armed forces, the ordinary young adult cannot have escaped becoming the subject of at least a dozen personal information files.’
      • ‘The respondent received clients' files from two separate former lawyers and proceeded to work on the case.’
      • ‘Confidential files allegedly containing detailed information about his visit were found on a London Street.’
      • ‘The people likely to work in this kind of environment may not value keeping detailed files on who ordered what for the purpose of working out what they might need in six months.’
      • ‘It is the start of a drive towards the collection in one file of all information on you in official data bases, and maybe a few commercial ones, too.’
      • ‘The ideal for any organisation is that their employees can access all company information, documents or files within seconds - no matter where they are in the world.’
      • ‘The information held in the files is extremely difficult and, in the majority of cases, impossible to reinstate.’
      • ‘The work involves painstakingly searching through files and financial information looking for wrongdoing.’
      dossier, document, record, report, case history, case study
      View synonyms
    2. 1.2Computing A collection of data, programs, etc. stored in a computer's memory or on a storage device under a single identifying name.
      ‘you can save the file to your hard disk’
      • ‘Does the company have at least one back-up copy of all data and software files stored at a secure off-site storage location?’
      • ‘Lastly there's a flaw related to the display of the names of downloaded files.’
      • ‘Search your computer's files, audio, video, images and emails, and even the Web.’
      • ‘And they had to figure out what to name the file, before they could close down the computer and head out into the snow.’
      • ‘Users will also need special software to play the files on their desktop computers.’
      batch of data, document, text
      View synonyms
  • 2Canadian A number of issues and responsibilities relating to a particular policy area.

    ‘what progress has the Prime Minister made on the unity file?’

verb

[WITH OBJECT]
  • 1Place (a document) in a cabinet, box, or folder in a particular order.

    ‘the contract, when signed, is filed’
    figurative ‘he still had the moment filed away in his memory’
    • ‘This will be filed away by Portugal in the same category as England's win over Paraguay: job done.’
    • ‘Cultural material deemed inappropriate like this Popeye cartoon are filed away in studio vaults, or in many cases just burned.’
    • ‘If he had given the photos straightaway to a museum or other institution they might have been filed away for years until someone got around to looking at them.’
    • ‘He began collecting lists, brochures and catalogues, which he filed away on the top of a cabinet in his large office.’
    • ‘She she went straight to her desk and filed the folder in a locked cabinet in her desk.’
    • ‘Presently, raw data from most research are likely to be filed away or lost in the depths of a hard disk once the paper is published.’
    • ‘The completed questionnaires were filed in a secure cabinet.’
    • ‘His office was neat and tidy, his papers neatly stacked on his desk, or filed away in cabinets.’
    • ‘Pre-election promises, such as the reintroduction of wealth tax and taxation of trading profits, have been filed away.’
    • ‘I file the papers in their eventual home and create a pointer for myself to remind me that there's unfinished business filed away there.’
    • ‘No, that all looked to have been filed away safely in some mental cupboard.’
    • ‘This latest roll call of grand-slam winners is unlikely to be filed away among the classics, all of them celebrating only their first major title.’
    • ‘She finally kissed him on the forehead, and then returned to filing the strewn folders.’
    • ‘This allows a GM to easily file the orders for a game in its folder without cutting or, in the case of two games on opposite sides of the same sheet of paper, going to the copy shop.’
    • ‘Once users have downloaded what they want, they apparently annotate it and file it in filing cabinets and folders just as they always did.’
    • ‘But all he received in return was a polite thank you note while the piece was quietly filed away in the orchestra's library.’
    • ‘Customer purchase commitments are recorded in contracts that may be filed away or scanned into an electronic repository; in neither case are the data easy to access.’
    • ‘She picked up a bunch of folders from her desk and filed them into a cabinet labelled: ‘Simon’.’
    • ‘The findings did not alter government policy and were simply filed away.’
    • ‘She shrugged the thought and continued filing the folders in the metal cabinet.’
    categorize, classify, organize, put in place, put in order, order, arrange, catalogue, tabulate, index, pigeonhole
    View synonyms
    1. 1.1 Submit (a legal document, application, or charge) to be placed on record by the appropriate authority.
      ‘criminal charges were filed against the firm’
      no object ‘the company had filed for bankruptcy’
      • ‘The special leave application filed by the applicant certainly cannot be regarded as hopeless.’
      • ‘I had never been told before this that they had even already filed for divorce.’
      • ‘But it sounds like Rifkin originally filed this patent in order to challenge the idea of patenting living materials.’
      • ‘Ms. Conner is now divorced and her nursing home has filed for bankruptcy protection.’
      • ‘In early 2002 the company filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in the US.’
      • ‘Six of the companies also filed a parallel suit in Germany.’
      • ‘The applicant filed an application for judicial review, but it was dismissed by consent.’
      • ‘No charges were ever filed against the accountant.’
      • ‘A class-action suit was recently filed by lawyers for the homeless who had been improperly denied their benefits.’
      • ‘Provided the certificate is filed within 7 days you can have a public funding assessment.’
      • ‘Out of 6,250 applications that were filed for legal assistance with the foundation, 3,843 were approved.’
      • ‘After charges were filed, federal authorities began to look for the defendant.’
      • ‘They are referred to in the submissions filed in support of this application.’
      • ‘The company has just filed for bankruptcy with debts of over £169.7 million.’
      • ‘In December, charges were filed against the women who testified.’
      • ‘The state government challenged the magistrate's order by filing a petition in the Bombay high court.’
      • ‘Paperwork was filed today with the court, saying he is no longer representing Jackson.’
      • ‘Does your client not have any copies of any of the process or other documents that have been filed or orders made?’
      • ‘These applications were filed in the appeals court and during the hearing it was not allowed as evidence.’
      • ‘Bored with his career and bland, conservative nature, Miriam has already filed for divorce.’
      apply, put in, register, sign up, ask
      bring, press, lodge, place, lay, prefer, put forward, present, submit
      View synonyms
    2. 1.2 (of a reporter) send (a story) to a newspaper or news organization.
      • ‘Nine organizations and four individual journalists filed a federal suit in New York, seeking an injunction against enforcement of restrictions on movement.’
      • ‘I talked to that reporter before they went to file the story.’
      • ‘Both the reporter and I needed to file stories at the top of the hour, so the interview was uniquely direct and productive.’
      • ‘Paul Reynolds, their crime correspondent filed a report at lunchtime about the arrest of the suspect and the mistress.’
      • ‘But because our writers are already filing timely stories that won't hold, we've decided to launch without having in place every single piece.’
      • ‘It does not require, to meet Dr. Ink's standards, that the reporter file the story from that place.’
      • ‘The intrepid reporters have filed stories from around the world, including Tokyo, Montreal and Alberquerque, New Mexico.’
      • ‘Every daily reporter will file something from the news conference.’
      • ‘One reporter filed a statement that there were over one thousand people in the march.’
      • ‘Newspaper and television reporters filed dozens of stories from the scene of the fire.’
      • ‘I've since picked it up, done additional reporting and filed my story.’
      • ‘The Birmingham News's senior political reporter filed this report.’
      • ‘Most of the print reporters were heading back to file their stories.’
      • ‘See, I've worked in journalism for the last seventy-eight years, ever since the usual way a reporter would file a story was by telegram.’
      • ‘The News Editor then ensures all the stories are filed by deadline so they can go to the sub-editors.’
      • ‘And even then it's mostly a problem for reporters, who get fed up of filing the same story.’
      • ‘You want to stay on, filing stories destined for front pages.’
      • ‘Even wire service reporters cannot beat them because the former must file copy to a news desk before it is published.’
      • ‘It was the sound of frustrated and exhausted BBC Radio 4 reporter Michael Buchanan struggling to file his story for yesterday's Today programme.’
      • ‘Three or four trained reporters can work around that because they've trained to file stories.’

Phrases

  • on file

    • In a file or filing system.

      • ‘This is compared to the voter's signature on file at the elections office.’
      • ‘A key factor is that these households pay a monthly bill, so they already have their credit card on file.’
      • ‘I also know that by law, many companies are required to keep written resume's on file for at least a year.’
      • ‘With regard to evidence, I have been told that you have everything on file and you have the files in front of you.’
      • ‘Of course, I already knew they would not have my name on file, but I figured it couldn't hurt.’
      • ‘You will be pleased to hear that I have enough of these tales on file to last another six months, and three out of the next four involve things getting blown up.’
      • ‘The reports must be filed monthly with the Supreme Court and be kept on file with the local court's clerk.’
      • ‘You should make sure the address they have on file is your current address and that any charges on the account were made by you.’
      • ‘The boy was cleared of the charges and has no previous convictions, charges or warnings but despite this his fingerprints were kept on file.’
      • ‘He has a retaliation complaint on file with the city's Employee Relations Board.’

Origin

Late Middle English (as a verb meaning ‘string documents on a thread or wire to keep them in order’): from French filer ‘to string’, fil ‘a thread’, both from Latin filum ‘a thread’. Compare with file.

Pronunciation

file

/fʌɪl/

Main definitions of file in English

: filé1file2file3file4

file3

noun

  • 1A line of people or things one behind another.

    ‘files of tourists stream up the narrow lanes of Mont St Michel’
    • ‘It's all too clear: it's not the visionaries but rather the pragmatics that are standing in file.’
    • ‘Aside from a few occasions, we rode in file, all strung out, from the start until Pradollano.’
    • ‘They line nine men up in a file, one behind the other.’
    • ‘He walked off to a corridor out of the landing bay with the lead general at his side and the other two in file behind them.’
    • ‘‘There,’ she said softly, and a moment later, saw a dark file of flying shapes appear.’
    line, column, row, string, chain, queue, procession, train, convoy, caravan
    View synonyms
    1. 1.1Military A small detachment of troops.
      ‘a file of English soldiers had ridden out from Perth’
      • ‘Commanders and platoon leaders should lead from the front of attack formation even when in file or column when fighting in urban terrain.’
      • ‘Maneuvering and the use of machine guns in fighting made infantry files pressing along the front inefficient.’
      • ‘One soldier in the file was hit by mortar fire a few yards from my tank.’
    2. 1.2Chess Each of the eight rows of eight squares on a chessboard running away from the player towards the opponent.
      Compare with rank (sense 2 of the noun)
      • ‘Since the position is closed, we have time (if needed) to bring our pieces to a better square or file.’
      • ‘Two pawns of the same color lined up on a file as the result of a capture.’
      • ‘Instead of just accepting this situation, an experienced player would actively play to create a file for his Rooks.’
      • ‘Black is opening a file on the queenside in order to activate his rook.’
      • ‘For kings on the same file, this is just an odd number of squares between kings!’

verb

  • no object, with adverbial of direction (of a group of people) walk one behind the other, typically in an orderly and solemn manner.

    ‘the mourners filed into the church’
    • ‘The mostly middle-aged crowd from labour unions and peace groups filed behind a truck with speakers blasting, ‘Power to the People’.’
    • ‘He gently placed a kiss on her forehead and walked out with the medics filing out behind him.’
    • ‘They all filed out of the room and stopped just outside the door.’
    • ‘Fingers were crossed and prayers said as the group filed back into their seats.’
    • ‘He looked over to one of the hallways leading into the dining hall and saw a large group of people filing in through the doors.’
    • ‘The movie was soon over and the group filed out of the cinema.’
    • ‘The group all filed into each of the rooms, which Jim presumed were identical.’
    • ‘The group filed out of the classroom and made their way downstairs to the locker rooms.’
    • ‘The group slowly filed into the small cell, circling the block in quiet reverence.’
    • ‘The group filed out of the recording booth and into the room.’
    • ‘The group filed out of the room, Cheryl and Tim staying a moment behind.’
    • ‘The group filed out, and one of them slammed the door shut, ‘What did they want with us?’’
    • ‘At the funeral they were filing past the open coffin to pay their respects.’
    • ‘As the rest of the Training Center filed out, I walked up onto the stage and behind the curtain.’
    • ‘She glanced out the window, and saw the group filing down the path a few stories down.’
    • ‘The guys all filed out of the room until it was just the two of them.’
    • ‘Sarah's two groupies filed in behind her, both had their own individual walks but they would all be classified in the same category.’
    • ‘A few seconds passed and the group filed to the back of the shuttle.’
    • ‘There was a beep as an elevator door opened, and a group of people filed out.’
    • ‘The mourners filed out of the church.’
    walk in a line, proceed in a line, march, parade, troop, pass in formation
    View synonyms

Origin

Late 16th century: from French file, from filer ‘to string’.

Pronunciation

file

/fʌɪl/

Main definitions of file in English

: filé1file2file3file4

file4

noun

  • A tool with a roughened surface or surfaces, typically of steel, used for smoothing or shaping a hard material.

    • ‘Use a smooth file or sanding block to take off the sharp edge with a few shear strokes (down and along the edge simultaneously).’
    • ‘Maintain the existing angle on the blade, and sharpen with a smooth pass with the file.’
    • ‘Basic Fitting was a course designed to equip graduates with the skills required to use metals tools, drills, files and the like.’
    • ‘Fine-toothed files shaped tangs on both barrels, one stroke at a time.’
    • ‘He would also have punches with which to make holes, shears for cutting sheet metal and files for smoothing the metal.’
    • ‘It would be impossible to etch checkering like this with a hand file because the area you'd want to checker is surrounded by stuff you just don't want to cut.’
    • ‘The exception would be the use of a hacksaw with a fine toothed blade to cut it to length and a metal file to smooth out the roughness.’
    • ‘Sandersons was situated on the Cutlery Road and was involved in the production of tools, saws, files etc.’
    • ‘The facility is filled with workbenches bearing tool boxes loaded with files, stones, scrapers and reamers.’

verb

[WITH OBJECT]
  • 1Smooth or shape with a file.

    ‘never file your nails from the centre to the sides’
    • ‘The expert use of forging dies and of skilled hands to file, smooth, polish, and finish are readily apparent.’
    • ‘And filing my nails has become really important.’
    • ‘First, Sharon filed my nails into lovely rounded shapes.’
    • ‘They took me back to the house and my aunt cleaned me up then gave me a manicure, filing my nails and painting them maroon.’
    • ‘He then files the piece to smooth out the rough edges and rubs it on different sand papers for a smooth finish.’
    • ‘She was seated in the foyer, and when she was not fixing appointments, was busy filing her nails.’
    • ‘Mike shaped, filed and polished the buttplate and triggerguard from rough brass castings before fitting them to the stock.’
    • ‘She was busy filing her nails and I cleared my throat.’
    • ‘After spreading a dry towel across her lap so not to dirty her dress, she took Liz's left hand and began filing the nails.’
    • ‘Brooks filed each part to shape, marked both locks as ‘London Warranted,’ and finished them with color case hardening.’
    • ‘I suspect the government agent assigned to my life spends most of the day filing his nails and eating toast and wondering how I can go so long without ever doing laundry.’
    • ‘When dry, Claire gently tapped it - she said when it sounded hard and solid she knew it was ready to be filed into shape.’
    • ‘Trim them regularly, and if you file your nails do it in one direction only, as sawing back and forth will encourage them to split.’
    • ‘The head was shaped with a bow saw, then rasped, filed, and smoothed like the shaft.’
    • ‘A juror was dismissed from duty yesterday after reading a magazine and filing her nails during a case.’
    • ‘You can often bend the brake wall back and file it smooth enough to keep riding on it.’
    • ‘The secretary had tight red curls done all through her hair, and was filing her nails when I caught her attention.’
    • ‘The edges of the bands were filed smooth before they were used and males were banded on the right forearm and females on the left forearm.’
    • ‘The technicians wear small paper masks over their mouths, but their hands and faces are liberally covered with white powder from filing clients' acrylic nails.’
    • ‘Your favourite shirt might be fuchsia, or you might have a tendency to file your nails and pumice your feet while you're in the bath.’
    smooth, buff, rub, rub down, polish, burnish, furbish
    View synonyms
    1. 1.1file something away/off Remove something by grinding it off with a file.
      • ‘It's rather creepy how the dead ant-parts are filed off in the spiral staircases and heaped in piles behind the painted barn.’
      • ‘If caught early enough, the cracks can be filed away before they spread deeper a bit like filing a cracked finger nail before it splits.’
      • ‘Once the worst pitting and damage is filed away, he sands the metal with a coarse sandpaper.’
      • ‘The one place where the jagged edges are filed smoothly, efficiently away.’

Origin

Old English fīl, of West Germanic origin; related to Dutch vijl and German Feile.

Pronunciation

file

/fʌɪl/