Definition of extract in English:



[with object]
Pronunciation /ɪkˈstrakt//ɛkˈstrakt/
  • 1Remove or take out, especially by effort or force.

    ‘the fossils are extracted from the chalk’
    • ‘And if we were going to have to use military force, we'd have to extract some of those forces relatively soon to deal with the North Korean issue.’
    • ‘It took rescue workers until after dawn to extract the body from the rubble around the crushed stairwell where it was found.’
    • ‘The simplest way to deal with the problem is to extract the software, remove the old binary, then build anew.’
    • ‘The resulting embryos were allowed to develop in laboratory dishes for several days before the scientists cannibalised them to extract embryonic stem cells.’
    • ‘The resources required for transformation can only be extracted from the conventional force structure.’
    • ‘The snail's venom kills the fish, but it can then be safely extracted from the fish's tissue.’
    • ‘A highly prized delicacy, dried swallow spittle is extracted from nests gathered in Southeast Asia.’
    • ‘The main function of the colon is to conserve water within the body by extracting it from the bowel contents.’
    • ‘Mitochondrial DNA was extracted from two fish using a standard phenol and chloroform extraction protocol.’
    • ‘Next, a nucleus with a complete set of DNA is meticulously extracted from a single cell, itself removed painlessly from the skin or body of the living organism that's to be cloned.’
    • ‘Both are specialists in mountain warfare and could be used to extract special forces groups already operating inside Afghanistan.’
    • ‘Once you have extracted the seeds, you can continue to investigate cardamom's dual role.’
    • ‘Operating in heavy fire, the column finally extracted the pinned-down forces and their captives, but 18 Americans lost their lives in the process.’
    • ‘Strawberry genomic DNA was extracted from achenes removed from W1-stage strawberry fruits as described previously.’
    • ‘Free amino compounds were extracted from tissue homogenates according to the procedure described by Shaul and Galili.’
    • ‘The team will extract cores from the pila and analyze them later this year to assess the underwater curing rate of the concrete, he said.’
    • ‘Women wailed and slapped their faces in grief; men scrambled through broken concrete in an effort to extract the dead - for few held out hope of finding anyone alive.’
    • ‘Frantic efforts were made to extract her, but after 40 minutes all movements ceased.’
    • ‘Everyone quickly extracted the seeds from the Georgia cotton and soon our crop was in the ground.’
    • ‘Your sense of impending doom is heightened when one reports that his efforts to extract cash from an automated teller machine were fruitless.’
    take out, draw out, bring out, pull out, remove, withdraw, pluck out, fish out, prize out, extricate
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    1. 1.1 Obtain (a substance or resource) from something by a special method.
      ‘lead was extracted from the copper’
      • ‘The five-megawatt reactor at Yongbyon generates spent fuel rods laced with plutonium, but they must be removed and reprocessed to extract the plutonium for use in a nuclear weapon.’
      • ‘Mercury is now extracted from its ores by a method that has been used for hundreds of years.’
      • ‘Total sugars were extracted using the ethanol method as described above.’
      • ‘One of the methods used to extract caffeine from the coffee bean is called water processing.’
      • ‘The sugar is extracted from the slices by means of diffusion with hot water.’
      • ‘Nevertheless, the most optimal method for extracting nucleic acid must also be determined for each specimen type.’
      • ‘Nucleic acids were extracted from grains of wheat using a modification of the CTAB protocol as described by SALLARES et al. 1995.’
      • ‘Much of that coal was extracted using surface mining methods, either by area or contour stripping and angering.’
      • ‘Soluble sugars were extracted using a modified method of Hasslemore and Roughan.’
      • ‘The risk seems to be higher in people treated between the ages of 8 and 10 years, and in those who received growth hormone extracted by the Wilhelmi method.’
      • ‘Clearly, the resources of Africa, the resources of Nigeria, are not going to benefit the people from the very region that resources are extracted from.’
      • ‘What is the oil and gas being extracted from Atlantic Canada being used for?’
      • ‘Coconut or ‘copra’ oil is extracted from the coconut fruit.’
      • ‘For western consumption, the butter is extracted from unfermented nuts by boiling in water, either in the country of origin or in the importing country.’
      • ‘Culture medium and cell-surface enzymes were extracted according to a method adapted from Wallner and Nevins.’
      • ‘Thyroid hormones were extracted from tadpoles following previously described methods.’
      • ‘The catch is that the oil is extracted from cotton laden with toxic pesticides and fertilizers, and grown with genetically modified organisms.’
      • ‘The DNA including the red pigment gene is extracted from the apple.’
      • ‘The traditional method for extracting pure iron from its ore is to heat the ore in a blast furnace with limestone and coke.’
      • ‘Proteins extracted by the CTAB method were denatured in 1xSDS sample buffer prior to SDS-PAGE.’
      squeeze out, express, separate, press out, obtain, distil
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    2. 1.2 Obtain (something such as money or information) from someone unwilling to give it.
      ‘I won't let you go without trying to extract a promise from you’
      • ‘Employing a fluent Anatolian dialect and using minimum force Barossa extracts a vital nugget of information from the somewhat stubborn barber.’
      • ‘In my experience, the best way to extract information from an unwilling subject is to put a bullet into one of his thighs.’
      • ‘Taxes were paid, or extracted by force and the name of the king or the earl who ‘owned’ the land would make little difference to the ones working and living on it.’
      • ‘King always extracted a maximum effort and his underdogs performed better than they had a right to.’
      • ‘The bunch fills the road, riders snorting, heaving and blowing hard as they try to extract maximum effort from their tired bodies for one final frenzied lunge towards the line.’
      • ‘Moreover, the presiding officer can admit previous evidence extracted by torture.’
      • ‘These systems do not work because genuine cooperation cannot be extracted from people by force.’
      • ‘Braverman suggests that Taylor saw ‘the problem’ of management as being how to control and extract effort from a potentially recalcitrant work force.’
      • ‘The judicial system quickly learned to live with the fact that defendants appeared in court bearing signs of torture or testified that confessions had been extracted from them by force.’
      • ‘Various means were adopted for extracting the maximum effort from the people with the minimum satisfaction of their needs.’
      • ‘Despite promises of police reform, police continue to use torture to intimidate, harass and humiliate women detainees to extract money or information.’
      • ‘There are schemes around to extract money from your pension, but taking money out of your pension early is generally a bad move.’
      • ‘As in the case of the American South or Italian rural Fascism, the efforts being made to extract labour in the 1910s and 1920s tended to produce a particularly harsh system of control.’
      • ‘Once you hand over your details, the fraudster either starts extracting small sums of money from you till you have nothing left, or simply drains your bank account and again leaves you with nothing.’
      • ‘It allows hard-pressed pensioners to extract money from their homes without having to sell them.’
      • ‘During criminal investigation police frequently resort to torture to extract information from suspects while they are in their custody.’
      • ‘If your intention is to extract information, you cannot be accused of torture.’
      • ‘The Government is using stealth taxes to extract money from households behind their backs.’
      • ‘Information extracted by torture tends to be false.’
      • ‘So many times in the past we've seen chairmen play silly negotiating games in a childish effort to extract a few more bob from a buying club.’
      wrest, exact, wring, screw, squeeze, milk, force, coerce, obtain by force, obtain by threat, obtain by threats, extort, blackmail someone for, worm something out of someone
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    3. 1.3 Select (a passage from a text, film, or piece of music) for quotation, performance, or reproduction.
      ‘the table is extracted from the report’
      • ‘From the cause of death register we extracted a list of all people aged less than 76 years who committed suicide in Denmark from 1981 to 1997.’
      • ‘Then with suitable software you can both search for text and select and extract text for insertion into your own document.’
      • ‘a local English-language magazine published a good roundup of the case in August, from which this mini biography is extracted.’
      • ‘Once you have managed to extract the text you want and to format it to your taste, there is no reason to limit yourself to a manual use of the script, or to use it only at the console for that matter.’
      • ‘The relevant pages are extracted in those two volumes.’
      • ‘Each article was reviewed, and the content dealing with each of the Task Force issues was extracted from the literature.’
      • ‘They extracted the document recording the bet and officially ‘signed’ his admission of defeat with a thumbprint before returning the paper to the files for Thorne to discover later.’
      • ‘What we have done is undertaken our duty responsibly in seeking to extract the relevant documents from the relevant files so that only that which is relevant is before the court.’
      • ‘The inherent risk is loss/exposure of data if a hacker is able to extract the plain text.’
      • ‘The similarity lies in what is reported, and in the fixed data across columns, and there is much programming effort in extracting it from the database.’
      • ‘In select passages we have extracted in paragraph 18, they have made some extremely cautionary remarks about how the failure to give evidence should be used.’
      • ‘To allow full-text retrieval ability, the system should be able to extract text from the transformed file.’
      • ‘They reviewed all relevant publications and extracted an extended list of potential checklist items.’
      • ‘We extracted records on 32 384 patients who had not received such a drug in the preceding three months.’
      • ‘Third, since the program does not support the indexing function for Korean, it is difficult to extract Korean text for full-text document retrieval.’
      • ‘Plugins can extract text that is trapped in files for full-text indexing.’
      • ‘I extract that text directly out of our new library system, we have a group library system now in our company, with 150 newspapers on the database.’
      • ‘His piece was extracted in a high school text book.’
      excerpt, select, choose, reproduce, repeat, copy, quote, cite, cull, take, abstract
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    4. 1.4 Derive (an idea) from a body of information.
      ‘there are few attempts to extract generalities about the nature of the disciplines’
      • ‘In extracting the basic concepts of observation, description and communication from my visual education, I have literally defined myself as a coach.’
      • ‘Those whose livelihood hinges on their ability to extract interesting thoughts from fundamentally uninteresting people have grown moustaches to signify their collective dolefuleness.’
      • ‘Sophisticated analysis techniques allow researchers to extract meaningful results from spectral imaging data.’
      • ‘In an effort to extract additional insight from these data, we have used survival analysis to estimate a model of bear response to human activity.’
      • ‘Millions of people look to her for ideas about how to live, to the point where that caller was hoping she could extract some ideas for living out of the prison experience.’
      • ‘Despite her efforts to extract hope from tragedy, the war years continue to cast a long shadow over her life.’
      • ‘Then, elated with the tranquillity of aloneness, I sat upon dusty shoes extracting ideas from my brain to be written painfully into my journal.’
      • ‘When one attempts to extract something meaningful from this passage, one faces an uphill struggle, yet this is by no means an isolated example of such wilful obfuscation and hyperbole.’
      • ‘Only the most dedicated wine-maker can extract any suggestion of Elbling's evanescent flavour of just-ripe apricots but this is a wine to appeal to viticultural archivists.’
      • ‘It shows the hard times spent over attempts to extract a meaning out of signs.’
      • ‘I am deeply afraid I will surprise him one day beating his head on the table in an effort to extract the solution he's seeking.’
      • ‘We have attempted to extract ideas about culture from particular instances of cultural production (including discussion).’
      • ‘Nicola Corboy extracts ideas from each of the six modules.’
      • ‘Remember - he's extracting this idea out of a piece lamenting the possible destruction of New York.’
      • ‘To do this they extracted the mathematical ideas in each problem and communicated their reasoning about those ideas by mutually supporting their verbal and nonverbal behaviors.’
      • ‘A defeat would not necessarily prove fatal and you can be sure that positives would be extracted from a draw, but a win for either side would be a giant step towards qualification with just two games remaining.’
      • ‘Plato's way of writing leaves us to extract ideas from different dialogues, put them together, and work out his position on a given issue.’
      • ‘And I hope that the effort required to extract a positive philosophical position from her letters has borne out this claim.’
      • ‘A more profound student of the Civil War than Wolseley, Henderson took the lead in extracting important ideas from the American experience.’
      • ‘NASA engineers and astronauts extracted a valuable lesson from this mission: It was difficult, if not impossible, to steer a spacecraft merely by eye.’
      derive, develop, evolve, deduce, infer, conclude, gather, elicit, obtain, get, take, gain, acquire, procure, attain, glean
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  • 2Mathematics
    Calculate (a root of a number)

    ‘early computers had an instruction to extract a square root’
    • ‘I was allowed to use the new Friden calculating machine which, shortly before its transformation into a relic, could also extract square roots.’
    • ‘They question the computers, add and subtract, extract square roots, and then go into action.’
    • ‘You will often find a button on your calculator which extracts roots (perhaps marked y x) near the button which computes the power of a number (marked x y).’
    • ‘An ROM may be used in lieu of the squares and the device for extracting square root.’


Pronunciation /ˈɛkstrakt/
  • 1A short passage taken from a text, film, or piece of music.

    ‘an extract from a historical film’
    • ‘Here are a few short extracts from the many letters that members sent to PSA President Sue Walsh.’
    • ‘Here is a short extract from the text of Ficino's letter.’
    • ‘The sound file features a short extract from his most recent concert.’
    • ‘The text comprises extracts from interviews by Peter McConchie with seventeen elders from different parts of the country, discussing an aspect of their culture.’
    • ‘A short extract, chosen at random, gives the general flavour.’
    • ‘As is so often the way with writers, paradox seemed not to detract from but strengthen his work, as this collection of novel extracts, short stories, travel writing and autobiography proves.’
    • ‘Part One includes extracts from traditional prescriptive texts, portrayals of the widow in classical literature as well as 19th and 20th Century documents.’
    • ‘The special birthday concert will feature extracts from musicals over the 21 years along with performances from Tullow's current students.’
    • ‘A short extract from this film can be downloaded from the British Film Institute's Creative Archive.’
    • ‘Anyway, there are two extracts from the GW piece you should have caught.’
    • ‘The Choral Society is a four-part choir specialising in major choral pieces and extracts from musicals old and new.’
    • ‘For the sake of fairness, here is a short extract from one of the letters I received from Dan today.’
    • ‘He will then hear a short extract from the royal charter of 1204 that features in a town play, Wheels of Time, written for the anniversary by local historian David Sherratt.’
    • ‘So these are authentic extracts from the text of those letters, are they?’
    • ‘Sometimes you hear short extracts of music to fill in the gap between the end of one song and the start of the news; sometimes the news tape is started 10 seconds in, after a song or ad overruns.’
    • ‘Here are extracts from the text of audio tapes he recorded for his wife Samantha, including a number of complaints about equipment shortages, something the Army has repeatedly been criticised for.’
    • ‘That is followed by a passage quoting the extract from Goebbels's diary just cited in the following terms.’
    • ‘Westport Choral Society is a four part choir specialising in major choral pieces and extracts from some old and some modern musicals.’
    • ‘Interspersed with nostalgic video clips of the company, the programme moved through short works and extracts.’
    • ‘The first half of the play was pretty poor I thought consisting of not much more than set pieces - extracts from the public record - many of which we'd seen before on the TV.’
    excerpt, passage, abstract, citation, selection, quotation, cutting, clipping, snippet, fragment, piece
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  • 2A preparation containing the active ingredient of a substance in concentrated form.

    ‘natural plant extracts’
    mass noun ‘a shampoo with extract of camomile’
    • ‘Most often consumed through standardized extracts, tinctures or concentrated drops, bilberry may also discourage cataracts and glaucoma.’
    • ‘The first step is frequently to prepare a solvent extract of the plant material.’
    • ‘Crude nuclear protein extracts were prepared from plants containing or lacking active Tag1 elements.’
    • ‘After preparation, extracts were analysed for pH and concentration as above.’
    • ‘Essential oils are concentrated plant extracts, which are generally obtained by steam distillation from flowers, fruit, seeds, stems, leaves, bark or roots of plants.’
    • ‘For the best results, a standardised extract of the active ingredient hypericin needs to be taken for six weeks.’
    • ‘In a thick bottomed pan put in all ingredients except the first extract of coconut milk, tomatoes and salt.’
    • ‘Some of the plant extract preparations favoured by alternative practitioners act as irritants or allergens and a query about the use of these should always be part of the history taking.’
    • ‘In a medium bowl, combine the cornstarch, brown sugar, apple juice concentrate, and vanilla extract and whisk together.’
    • ‘However, this method lacks both selectivity and sensitivity and measurements of quinones require concentration of the extract and removal of substances that strongly absorb ultraviolet light.’
    • ‘They found that the active ingredients in the magnolia extracts were two biphenyl compounds, honokiol and magnolol.’
    • ‘Many youngsters today prefer herbal bathing powders to soaps and medicinal plant extracts to chemical shampoos.’
    • ‘Preparations and extracts from echinacea plants are widely used, with many scientific studies noting clinical benefits.’
    • ‘Much of the vanilla entering western markets is used for the preparation of vanilla extract, a hydroalcoholic solution which contains the extracted aroma and flavour of vanilla.’
    • ‘The protein concentration in plant extracts was determined using the Bio-Rad protein assay.’
    • ‘There was a significant effect of the presence of aluminium, plaque type and their interaction on phosphate concentration in all plant extracts.’
    • ‘These cases underline the additional dangers from concentrated single chemical extracts from herbs.’
    • ‘Dyers could use concentrated extracts of some dyes, while chemical modifications simplified other processes.’
    • ‘Non-fluoride toothpastes do not contain fluoride and only usually contain natural ingredients, such as special mineral salts and plant extracts.’
    • ‘According to their work, an extract containing a mixture of the chemical acetone and the extract of the plant proved effective in killing mosquito larvae.’
    decoction, distillation, distillate, abstraction, concentrate, essence, juice, solution, tincture, elixir, quintessence
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Late Middle English: from Latin extract- ‘drawn out’, from the verb extrahere, from ex- ‘out’ + trahere ‘draw’.