Painful menstruation, typically involving abdominal cramps.
- ‘Her new book contains a lucid description of gynaecological problems, such as dysmenorrhoea and endometriosis, that will be well appreciated by patients and their partners.’
- ‘Women who have a history of early-onset premenstrual mood disturbances and dysmenorrhea are more likely to experience an improvement in their premenstrual mood.’
- ‘Endometriosis should be suspected when there is dyspareunia, severe dysmenorrhoea, or unexplained abdominal pain, although the symptoms experienced are a poor indicator of the severity of disease.’
- ‘For secondary dysmenorrhea, managing your cramps involves treating the underlying cause.’
- ‘Primary dysmenorrhea, which is defined as painful menses in women with normal pelvic anatomy, usually begins during adolescence.’
We take a look at several popular, though confusing, punctuation marks.