Definition of CRISPR in English:

CRISPR

noun

Biochemistry
  • 1A segment of DNA containing short repetitions of base sequences, involved in the defence mechanisms of prokaryotic organisms to viruses.

    CRISPR sequences encode RNAs that can recognize specific target sequences in a genome, at which base pairs can be cut or added. They act in a complex with a specific protein that functions like a pair of molecular scissors, with which they are used as a tool in genetic engineering

    • ‘The genome of P. carbinolicus contains clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) separated by unique spacer sequences.’
    • ‘researchers first noticed some of this DNA in E.coli, and much later it was named CRISPR—clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats.’
    • ‘Researchers detail in 'H-NS-mediated repression of CRISPR-based immunity in Escherichia coli K12 can be relieved by the transcription activator LeuO,' new data in Escherichia coli.’
    • ‘The majority of identified CRISPR loci are associated with a set of conserved protein-encoding genes termed cas (CRISPR-associated genes).’
    • ‘Table 1 gives a description of CRISPR regions in Streptococcus pneumoniae and viridans group streptococci.’
    1. 1.1 A genetic engineering tool that uses a CRISPR sequence of DNA and its associated protein to edit the base pairs of a gene.
      ‘using the genome editing tool known as CRISPR, researchers were able to selectively silence two genes in human papillomavirus’
      • ‘This limited the CRISPR system to its minimal functional components and thus illuminated its potential as a powerful genome editing tool.’
      • ‘This would be done using the genomic editing tool known as CRISPR-Cas9.’
      • ‘The CRISPR Design Tool was developed by the Feng Zhang laboratory at MIT.’
      • ‘The CRISPR/Cas9 design algorithm at this site allows users to input DNA sequence.’
      • ‘Crispr has been developed from a mechanism used by some bacteria to defend themselves against viruses.’

Origin

Early 21st century: short for clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat.

Pronunciation

CRISPR

/ˈkrɪspə/