Definition of congener in English:


Pronunciation /ˈkɒndʒɪnə//kənˈdʒiːnə/


  • 1A thing or person of the same kind or category as another.

    • ‘She may not be your congener.’
    • ‘Its congener is a report on Taino Indian beliefs, produced for Christopher Columbus by Ramón Pané, a Catalan friar on the island of Hispaniola.’
    • ‘No one is my congener.’
    • ‘Must I turn a blind eye to the tears caused by those who call themselves - and are to some degree - my congeners, even if they too are survivors of Auschwitz?’
    1. 1.1 An animal or plant of the same genus as another.
      ‘these birds or their congeners may be found in East Africa’
      • ‘Similar to its congeners, this sexually dimorphic species is hypothesized to be resource-defense polygynous.’
      • ‘They studied congeners, presumed sister species in many cases, having both minimal plumage differences and superficially similar primary vocalizations.’
      • ‘Other species also may refrain from calling, especially if they live in noisy environments, are likely to attract predators, or lack sympatric congeners with which they might hybridize.’
      • ‘Other studies have shown that widespread congeners might have an advantage over their rare congeners, by attracting more pollinators, having better competitive ability or having greater genetic diversity.’
      • ‘Although cryptic species have often been discovered, they are often themselves wide-ranging, and frequently sympatric with congeners.’
      • ‘In the context of physiological determinants of vertical zonation, note that many of the more coldadapted porcelain crabs could not withstand the habitat temperatures experienced by more warm-adapted congeners.’
      • ‘Frigatebirds may kill chicks and eggs of conspecifics and congeners.’
      • ‘North American populations of Hypomesus transpacificus, a congener of H. pretiosus, spend the entire life-cycle in freshwater.’
      • ‘If growth rates are sensitive to such selection, they should be more rapid in this species than in low-latitude or low-altitude congeners, and the nestling period should also be shortened.’
      • ‘Even when reproductive periods were evaluated separately, there were only two differences in the fractions of animal and plant foods in the diets of those congeners.’
      • ‘One can rapidly survey the appearance and geographic ranges of congeners, thus underscoring an outstanding feature of the volume-the ease with which information can be extracted.’
      • ‘For example, interspecific agonistic interactions select for dull-colored male flycatchers that experience less interference from more aggressive, sympatric congeners.’
      • ‘For example, along the subtidal to intertidal gradient, species replacements are common, and there are many examples of one species in a genus replacing a congener over relatively small vertical ranges where thermal gradients exist.’
      • ‘Furthermore, protection of paternity does not explain why male Bucephala exclude conspecific females and subadults, congeners, and other species with similar diets from their territories.’
      • ‘Though a number of studies have found lower levels of genetic variation in rare, narrowly distributed species compared to their more widespread congeners, several studies have found the opposite result.’
      • ‘Most studies of interspecific competition consider sympatric congeners because it is assumed that closely related species tend to compete more strongly.’
      • ‘Although its higher taxonomy remains controversial, E. texana has been placed in the family Limnadiidae with two other genera and 15 congeners.’
      • ‘In its introduced range, in the absence of its two slightly larger congeners, as well as of other morphologically similar potential competitors, does the small Indian mongoose increase in size?’
      • ‘Comparisons with its lowland congener further suggested that reliance of M. arizonicum on asexual reproduction may place this moss at a disadvantage in competition for suitable establishment sites at lower elevations.’
      • ‘These results agree with other studies comparing native congeners, which also had qualitatively similar seed bank strategies.’
  • 2A minor chemical constituent, especially one which gives a distinctive character to a wine or spirit or is responsible for some of its physiological effects.

    • ‘As a rule, the more expensive your alcohol is, the greater the chance that it's been through a comprehensive distillation process to filter out many of its congeners.’
    • ‘As such, the results presented here provide a hint that complex 5 and its congeners could prove useful in the fabrication of electrochemical sensors.’
    • ‘The darker the drink, the more congeners and other hangover-causing substances you'll imbibe, so tread warily around ports and heavy red wines.’
    • ‘Tannins are one form of congener, so red wine will be worse for you than white wine.’
    • ‘Ingredients called congeners, which give many types of alcohol their flavor, also can cause headaches.’
    • ‘Some alcoholic drinks, namely port, brandy and plonk are loaded with additives known as congeners that have their own role to play in the thick head and general foulness a big night out can induce.’
    • ‘As mentioned, congeners are a factor in causing hangovers.’
    • ‘That said, vodka is relatively free from additives known as congeners that are believed to have hangover-inducing potential.’
    • ‘Detection rates and wet weight concentrations varied widely for organochlorine pesticides and PCB congeners.’
    • ‘The lower the strength of the raw brandy, the richer it will be in the delicious, fruity, hangover-inducing congeners which provide all spirits with their fundamental character.’
    • ‘Drinking plenty of water before going to bed helps counteract dehydration and dilutes the congeners; replacing lost fluids by drinking water, fruit juices, or tea the morning after might also reduce the intensity of a hangover.’
    • ‘The latter contain higher concentrations of toxic fermentation by-products called congeners, which add taste but hang around longer in your body.’
    • ‘Enzymes collected from around the world are being investigated to determine their specific tastes for certain PCB configurations, or congeners.’
    • ‘One of the differences between spirits such brandies and whiskies made from grapes or grain and tequila is that the Mexican spirit is virtually free of congeners.’
    • ‘Concentration responses with individual congeners were evaluated with the rank correlation test.’
    • ‘This paper addresses the effects of these congeners only; heavy metal effects are not analyzed.’
    • ‘Vodka has very few congeners and bourbon has quite a bit.’
    • ‘The relative standard deviation for the major PCBs for repeat analyses of plasma samples was approximately 20% for most congeners.’
    • ‘Dark-coloured drinks, such as brandy, red wine and whisky, contain toxic additives called congeners, formed during fermentation.’
    • ‘Highest in congeners are drink spirits such as whiskey, scotch, bourbon, port and brandy.’


Mid 18th century: from Latin, from con- ‘together with’ + genus, gener- ‘race, stock’.