Definition of congener in English:


Pronunciation: /kənˈdʒiːnə//ˈkɒndʒɪnə/


  • 1A thing or person of the same kind or category as another.

    • ‘Must I turn a blind eye to the tears caused by those who call themselves - and are to some degree - my congeners, even if they too are survivors of Auschwitz?’
    • ‘No one is my congener.’
    • ‘She may not be your congener.’
    • ‘Its congener is a report on Taino Indian beliefs, produced for Christopher Columbus by Ramón Pané, a Catalan friar on the island of Hispaniola.’
    1. 1.1An animal or plant of the same genus as another.
      ‘these birds or their congeners may be found in East Africa’
      • ‘For example, along the subtidal to intertidal gradient, species replacements are common, and there are many examples of one species in a genus replacing a congener over relatively small vertical ranges where thermal gradients exist.’
      • ‘Other studies have shown that widespread congeners might have an advantage over their rare congeners, by attracting more pollinators, having better competitive ability or having greater genetic diversity.’
      • ‘In the context of physiological determinants of vertical zonation, note that many of the more coldadapted porcelain crabs could not withstand the habitat temperatures experienced by more warm-adapted congeners.’
      • ‘Though a number of studies have found lower levels of genetic variation in rare, narrowly distributed species compared to their more widespread congeners, several studies have found the opposite result.’
      • ‘North American populations of Hypomesus transpacificus, a congener of H. pretiosus, spend the entire life-cycle in freshwater.’
      • ‘They studied congeners, presumed sister species in many cases, having both minimal plumage differences and superficially similar primary vocalizations.’
      • ‘These results agree with other studies comparing native congeners, which also had qualitatively similar seed bank strategies.’
      • ‘For example, interspecific agonistic interactions select for dull-colored male flycatchers that experience less interference from more aggressive, sympatric congeners.’
      • ‘Similar to its congeners, this sexually dimorphic species is hypothesized to be resource-defense polygynous.’
      • ‘Most studies of interspecific competition consider sympatric congeners because it is assumed that closely related species tend to compete more strongly.’
      • ‘Other species also may refrain from calling, especially if they live in noisy environments, are likely to attract predators, or lack sympatric congeners with which they might hybridize.’
      • ‘Even when reproductive periods were evaluated separately, there were only two differences in the fractions of animal and plant foods in the diets of those congeners.’
      • ‘Although its higher taxonomy remains controversial, E. texana has been placed in the family Limnadiidae with two other genera and 15 congeners.’
      • ‘Furthermore, protection of paternity does not explain why male Bucephala exclude conspecific females and subadults, congeners, and other species with similar diets from their territories.’
      • ‘Frigatebirds may kill chicks and eggs of conspecifics and congeners.’
      • ‘Although cryptic species have often been discovered, they are often themselves wide-ranging, and frequently sympatric with congeners.’
      • ‘If growth rates are sensitive to such selection, they should be more rapid in this species than in low-latitude or low-altitude congeners, and the nestling period should also be shortened.’
      • ‘In its introduced range, in the absence of its two slightly larger congeners, as well as of other morphologically similar potential competitors, does the small Indian mongoose increase in size?’
      • ‘Comparisons with its lowland congener further suggested that reliance of M. arizonicum on asexual reproduction may place this moss at a disadvantage in competition for suitable establishment sites at lower elevations.’
      • ‘One can rapidly survey the appearance and geographic ranges of congeners, thus underscoring an outstanding feature of the volume-the ease with which information can be extracted.’
  • 2A minor chemical constituent, especially one which gives a distinctive character to a wine or spirit or is responsible for some of its physiological effects.

    • ‘Enzymes collected from around the world are being investigated to determine their specific tastes for certain PCB configurations, or congeners.’
    • ‘The relative standard deviation for the major PCBs for repeat analyses of plasma samples was approximately 20% for most congeners.’
    • ‘This paper addresses the effects of these congeners only; heavy metal effects are not analyzed.’
    • ‘The latter contain higher concentrations of toxic fermentation by-products called congeners, which add taste but hang around longer in your body.’
    • ‘Dark-coloured drinks, such as brandy, red wine and whisky, contain toxic additives called congeners, formed during fermentation.’
    • ‘Concentration responses with individual congeners were evaluated with the rank correlation test.’
    • ‘The lower the strength of the raw brandy, the richer it will be in the delicious, fruity, hangover-inducing congeners which provide all spirits with their fundamental character.’
    • ‘Highest in congeners are drink spirits such as whiskey, scotch, bourbon, port and brandy.’
    • ‘Detection rates and wet weight concentrations varied widely for organochlorine pesticides and PCB congeners.’
    • ‘Some alcoholic drinks, namely port, brandy and plonk are loaded with additives known as congeners that have their own role to play in the thick head and general foulness a big night out can induce.’
    • ‘The darker the drink, the more congeners and other hangover-causing substances you'll imbibe, so tread warily around ports and heavy red wines.’
    • ‘Drinking plenty of water before going to bed helps counteract dehydration and dilutes the congeners; replacing lost fluids by drinking water, fruit juices, or tea the morning after might also reduce the intensity of a hangover.’
    • ‘One of the differences between spirits such brandies and whiskies made from grapes or grain and tequila is that the Mexican spirit is virtually free of congeners.’
    • ‘Vodka has very few congeners and bourbon has quite a bit.’
    • ‘Tannins are one form of congener, so red wine will be worse for you than white wine.’
    • ‘As such, the results presented here provide a hint that complex 5 and its congeners could prove useful in the fabrication of electrochemical sensors.’
    • ‘As mentioned, congeners are a factor in causing hangovers.’
    • ‘That said, vodka is relatively free from additives known as congeners that are believed to have hangover-inducing potential.’
    • ‘Ingredients called congeners, which give many types of alcohol their flavor, also can cause headaches.’
    • ‘As a rule, the more expensive your alcohol is, the greater the chance that it's been through a comprehensive distillation process to filter out many of its congeners.’


Mid 18th century: from Latin, from con- together with + genus, gener- race, stock.