One of the mysteries of the English language finally explained.
1A contributory cause of a disease.
- ‘The causes are clearly different from risk factors, which are the diseases accompanying cofactors.’
- ‘Anorectal infections are a potent cofactor for HIV transmission.’
- ‘One potentially important cofactor is human immunodeficiency virus type 1.’
- ‘Although numerous epidemiological studies have examined the association between risk of cervical cancer and dietary cofactors, most studies appear to have methodological limitations.’
- ‘Although population studies have shown no association between autism and MMR vaccine it has been further postulated that various environmental or genetic cofactors are required for the effect’
- ‘Because many persons have these genotypes and only a few develop gluten-sensitive enteropathy, investigators have hypothesized that other genes or cofactors may be involved.’
- ‘Gender, age and body mass index were taken into consideration as cofactors or covariates.’
- ‘To negate the effect of proximity to the microchip plant as a cofactor, the author compared clients and nonclients in the 3 zones of the exposure area.’
- ‘The anaesthetics bind in a hydrophobic pocket which is the normal binding site for a necessary cofactor.’
- ‘Counseling can be offered to all patients with HCV infection to modify or prevent the adverse effects of cofactors, such as alcohol consumption, on disease progression.’
- ‘Other cofactors also deserve vigorous investigation.’
- ‘Alcohol intake is a cofactor in the rate of progression of chronic HCV infection.’
- ‘Any effect of breast feeding may be limited to a critical period or depend on other cofactors.’
- ‘Other cofactors include smoking, oral contraceptive use, multiparity, and possibly inflammation.’
- ‘Drugs and alcohol were a notable cofactor: 58 percent of the subjects reported being intoxicated during their last unprotected incident.’
- ‘By getting the iron out of the liver and dealing with the other cofactors, a lot of people are going to lead normal, healthy lives without any problems.’
- ‘Magnesium is an important cofactor in many enzymatic reactions.’
- ‘The other cofactors we considered are the other three families of drugs, the driver's age and sex, the type of vehicle driven, and the time of crash.’
- ‘The reasons are unknown but may be at least partially related to some environmental or genetic cofactors present that are necessary to trigger development of the disease.’
- ‘Cofactors are usually selected on the basis of simple forward selection, with markers entering the model individually rather than in pairs.’
A substance (other than the substrate) whose presence is essential for the activity of an enzyme.
- ‘Vitamin B 6 functions as a cofactor of many diverse enzymes in amino acid metabolism.’
- ‘Thiamine pyrophosphate, the active form of vitamin B-1, is a key cofactor of the essential enzymes involved in carbon metabolism.’
- ‘Modifications of proteins that depend upon vitamin C as a cofactor include proline and lysine hydroxylations.’
- ‘Copper is usually utilized in organisms as a cofactor in enzymes or electron transfer proteins that catalyze redox reactions or oxygen chemistry.’
- ‘The most effective chemoprevention protocols would include antioxidants, other vitamins, minerals used as cofactors in antioxidant enzymes, and DNA protecting nutrients.’
The quantity obtained from a determinant or a square matrix by removal of the row and column containing a specified element.
- ‘Now, if A belongs to M n, then its matrix of cofactors A’ also has integer entries.’
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