Definition of citation in English:



  • 1A quotation from or reference to a book, paper, or author, especially in a scholarly work.

    ‘the majority of the citations are to work published during the past twenty years’
    • ‘The number of Web citations to journal articles increased from 1992 to 1997.’
    • ‘The overall citation counts are somewhat higher because papers are often cited outside their own discipline.’
    • ‘Extensive literature citations are provided and add further to the enormous value of this work.’
    • ‘In addition to those who published no papers during the study period, another 215 academics who authored or co-authored at least one paper received zero citations.’
    • ‘In 1905, he published five landmark papers without footnotes or citations.’
    • ‘Extensive citations are included in this longer paper.’
    • ‘Not that the book lacks citations, references and footnotes.’
    • ‘In any event, the citation of authority is unlikely to be helpful.’
    • ‘I've included the full citations of a few papers so you can look them up in your local library.’
    • ‘In parenthetical citations, the first number refers to the English translation and the second to the original.’
    • ‘Print the citation in parentheses just as I have it.’
    • ‘They have tracked down each passage that Robbins quotes in the lectures and provide the full bibliographic citation for it.’
    • ‘This section, as well as the entire book, contains no citations or references to source material.’
    • ‘Subsequent page citations appear parenthetically within the text.’
    • ‘Therefore, patent citations reveal community-wide perceptions of the relative importance of patented technologies.’
    • ‘The endnotes are primarily scholarly citations of sources, while the footnotes amplify, explain, or illuminate details or side stories.’
    • ‘In browsing the Web, a citation to an article shows up on a page.’
    • ‘Authors with common names may have been credited with citations to papers they have not written, or some of their papers may have been omitted.’
    • ‘However, subsequent citations in the literature may distort or misrepresent the studies.’
    • ‘But for the majority of younger scientists, citation count is not a mark of competence.’
    quotation, quote, extract, excerpt, passage, line, piece
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    1. 1.1Law A reference to a previous case, used as guidance in the trying of comparable cases or in support of an argument.
      ‘this journal contains citations from all jurisdictions’
      • ‘The words underlined by me in that citation in my view support what I have said about this approach to be adopted by the court.’
      • ‘If foreign decisions were freely citable, it would mean that any judge wanting a supporting citation had only to troll deeply enough in the world's corpus juris to find it.’
      • ‘Each patent abstract provides a list of citations to previous patents, that is, the ‘prior art’ upon which the current patent builds.’
      • ‘The notice shall state concisely the section which is said to be unconstitutional or ultra vires, a brief statement of the argument to be made, and the citation of any cases which are relied upon for support of the argument.’
      • ‘I do not think that that citation supports a submission that there must be some form of specific reference to the work in question.’
      reference, allusion
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  • 2A mention of a praiseworthy act in an official report, especially that of a member of the armed forces in wartime.

    ‘the citation described him as an officer of extreme gallantry’
    • ‘The Marine Corps is usually conservative in distributing medals, but the battles of March and April here are certain to bring a significant number of citations for bravery, officials said.’
    • ‘His photographs have received numerous awards and citations.’
    • ‘Early this year the group were honoured to receive a special citation to mark their 34 years.’
    • ‘His Bronze Star medal citation for the incident praises his courage under fire in the aftermath of a mine explosion that rocked another swift boat on that day 35 years ago.’
    • ‘He read a citation in tribute to his many years of service to coaching and encouragement of athletics over the years.’
    • ‘The official citation, which I will read in a few minutes, lists many of Ray's professional accomplishments.’
    • ‘The citation praises in particular the penthouse flat which it describes as a tour de force.’
    • ‘The Medal of Honor recipient's photos and citations accompany each interview.’
    • ‘His role was described as ‘vital and incredibly demanding’ in the citation, adding that many lives were saved as a direct result of his actions.’
    • ‘He has received many citations and official commendations and published two volumes of collected poems he wrote.’
    • ‘The citation pays tribute to her dedication and enthusiasm, and the notable successes she has achieved.’
    • ‘I thought it was dishonorable and dishonest to question the medals and citations that he had received in combat.’
    • ‘He won his own Bronze Star that day, and the citation praises him for providing assistance to a damaged Swift boat ‘despite enemy bullets flying about him.’’
    • ‘The citation praised the calm and professional way she dealt with the incident.’
    • ‘Another form of participatory award is the unit citation, which recognizes those who serve in a unit that accomplished its mission in a superior manner.’
    • ‘In fact the official citation says that he displayed ‘a complete disregard of his personal safety’.’
    • ‘Presenting the trophy at Constabulary headquarters, the police authority chairman read out a citation praising the positive image he has given of his job.’
    • ‘The many officers who signed those glowing fitness reports and awarded those citations are either liars or they are incompetent.’
    • ‘Those records include the official after-action report, citations for Bronze Stars awarded for heroism that day and now the Task Force 115 report.’
    • ‘You did receive a citation from the CIA director of operations for your work after you retired from the agency over the years.’
    commendation, award, honour
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    1. 2.1A note accompanying an award, describing the reasons for it.
      ‘a Nobel citation’
      • ‘According to the award citation, the bank's entry ‘created a moment of real and lasting drama, forcing its domestic rivals to cut profit margins and follow its lead’.’
      • ‘Here's what the magazine reproduces from his award citation.’
      • ‘The award citation tells the rest of the story.’
      • ‘The remainder of the story is best told in the citation accompanying the award of his Air Force Cross.’
      • ‘Both programmes were described by the panel of adjudicators, in a citation at the awards ceremony, ‘as examples of first class journalism presented in a compelling and incisive manner’.’
      • ‘They are building popular support for peace on both sides of the border, the citation noted.’
      • ‘The award citation highlights his achievements in ocean exploration and unraveling its many complexities.’
      • ‘The award that carries a citation recognises his ‘professional excellence and contribution to the field of medicine and surgery especially laparoscopic surgery’.’
      • ‘"You inspire us to venture beyond the limits in every circumstance of our day, " his citation read.’
      • ‘In fact, this play was singled out in the citation awarding the Nobel Prize to Soyinka in 1986.’
      • ‘Their excellence in investigation had solved many challenging cases, the citation presented to them said.’
      • ‘In 2000, FIFA, the game's world governing body, honoured him with their fair-play award and the citation made special mention of his work with children in Soweto and all over South Africa.’
      • ‘More honest and accurate than laudatory adjectives on a fitness report or hyperbole in a medal citation, it is the true measure of a man by the people who know him the best.’
      • ‘The Chicago firm also received a citation of merit award for the building itself.’
      • ‘The citation on his nomination referred to the considerable time and personal commitment he had invested in raising the funding and recruiting the successful candidate, who takes up her post in May.’
      • ‘He read the citation accompanying the award and added his own praise.’
      • ‘The citation says that the report ‘brought the plight of oceans into people's living rooms.’’
      • ‘The Nobel citation praised him, saying he ‘has been pre-eminent in bringing new life to the organisation’.’
      • ‘The citation accompanying the award said he was tasked with the disposal of two sea mines.’
      • ‘The full citation of the award is printed following this list of prizes.’
      award, accolade, prize, honour, honourable mention, mention, recognition
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  • 3North American A summons to appear in court.

    ‘a traffic citation’
    • ‘A police officer has pulled over a motorist on the roadway to issue a traffic citation.’
    • ‘A citation requires a court appearance with the punishment and fine being determined by the judge upon conviction.’
    • ‘They must get written authorization from the Department of Environment before issuing a citation.’
    • ‘Indeed, he was told he would face a contempt of court citation if he disclosed either his complaint or the censure.’
    • ‘The police prosecutor has used it in court to look up the driving history of people who were appealing traffic citations.’
    summons, subpoena, writ, court order, process
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Middle English (in citation): from Old French, from Latin citatio(n-), from citare cite.