One of the mysteries of the English language finally explained.
nounPlural Chinooks, Plural chinooks
1A warm dry wind which blows down the east side of the Rocky Mountains at the end of winter.
- ‘Many named winds: chinook, fohn and the berg wind for example, identify this adiabatic condition.’
- ‘When the London explosions were announced this morning the chinooks overhead increased - clearly taking Mr Blair and colleagues back to London to assess the situation.’
- ‘A 2000 study published in Neurology found that when warm westerly winds, called the chinook winds, came off the Canadian Rockies, migraines increased in patients.’
- ‘Conversely, if chinook winds weaken or cease, the cold air can move back in from the east, and the temperature will drop just as suddenly.’
- ‘Similar geography produces an excess of positive over negative ions in Canada's chinook winds.’
- ‘Warm chinook winds from over the mountains to the west created the first open pastures as winter waned.’
- ‘North America was also subjected to its own chinook winds.’
- ‘In Alberta, Canada, those complaints revolve around chinooks, the warm winds that sweep the area during winter.’
- ‘Along the eastern slopes of the Rockies, the Chinook wind provides a welcome respite from the long winter chill.’
2A large North Pacific salmon which is an important food fish.
Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, family Salmonidae
- ‘But Striped Bass is a predator that may be impeding the recovery of listed species including steelhead trout, chinook salmon, delta smelt and splittail.’
- ‘Its year-round fishing was about as good as it gets - until three prime species ended up listed under the Endangered Species Act (coho salmon, chinook salmon and steelhead).’
- ‘Each run of Pacific chinook, coho, sockeye, pink, and chum salmon knows how to survive in a specific spawning stream.’
- ‘The Seymour hatchery raises and releases about 750,000 smolts annually, including pink, chum, coho, chinook salmon, cutthroat trout and steelhead.’
- ‘And the parasite is remarkably similar to the ‘rosette agent’ found occasionally in salmon, including chinook salmon, which can also cause mortality.’
- ‘Nailing down the differences between sockeye and chinook salmon could take years, however.’
- ‘Each fish kept must be noted on the licence and no more than 15 chinooks can be retained from the Strait in a year.’
- ‘In the Sacramento River, juvenile chinook salmon comprised up to 65% of the prey volume in striped bass stomachs sampled.’
- ‘To begin with, the orcas' main prey, chinook salmon, are themselves listed as threatened in Puget Sound.’
- ‘Construction timing, geared toward the beginning of 2005, coincides with the birth and early life cycles of sockeye, chinook and coho salmon, steelhead and sea-running cutthroat trout.’
- ‘The young snakes prey on recently hatched steelhead trout and chinook salmon and on the tadpoles of yellow-legged frogs.’
- ‘Conservation groups want to preserve one of the best remaining chinook salmon and steelhead runs in the West.’
- ‘Facedown in the water, a jolt of fear shot through me the first time I came face-to-face with a chinook, which aimed straight at me before veering sharply away.’
- ‘At different times of the year, the Campbell hosts all five species of Pacific salmon: chinook, coho, chum, sockeye, pink - and even the odd Atlantic salmon escaped from a nearby fish farm.’
- ‘In Butte Creek in California's Central Valley, only 14 spawning spring-run chinooks returned to the creek in 1987.’
- ‘In southern Washington, this monument encompasses the last free-flowing, nontidal stretch of the Columbia River in the United States, where 80 percent of the river's chinook salmon spawn.’
- ‘In early May 1992, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed the Snake River chinook salmon as a threatened species.’
- ‘The plankton blooms began to occur a couple of weeks early, and the chinook promptly disappeared from our usual winter spots.’
- ‘Here, near where Sacagawea was reunited with her family, Bannocks and Sheepeaters fished the mountain stream for the chinook salmon that filled its waters each summer.’
- ‘Finally things have begun to heat up a bit for the winter chinook fishery as the numbers of fish continued to increase throughout February.’
Mid 19th century: from attributive use of Chinook.
nounPlural Chinooks, Plural chinooks
1A member of a North American people inhabiting the region around the lower Columbia River in Oregon and Washington.
- ‘In the language of the native Chinook, ‘mima ‘does refer to death or burial.’’
2mass noun The Penutian language of the Chinook.
- ‘Chinook Jargon is a pidgin based primarily on Chinook and Nuuchanulth that served as a trade language throughout the Pacific Northwest.’
- ‘Apparently not, because another local citizen served as a translator into Chinook, the trade language of the Puget Sound tribes, and an Indian in turn translated into the local tongue.’
Relating to the Chinook or their language.
- ‘Even Lewis and Clark, returning through the Cascades in 1806, stopped at a nearly deserted Chinook village where they met an old woman ‘badly marked with the Small Pox’, who remained there still.’
From Salish tsinúk.
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