Main definitions of calf in English

: calf1calf2

calf1

noun

  • 1A young bovine animal, especially a domestic cow or bull in its first year.

    ‘a heifer calf’
    • ‘He rears the bull calves to a year-and-a-half and the heifer calves to two-year-olds.’
    • ‘On display will be the cream of the 2003 bull and heifer calves that have qualified at various regional shows throughout the summer.’
    • ‘Cows, calves and bull were docile and showed no signs of fear or excitement at the presence of the group.’
    • ‘Dairy bull calves reared for beef through a pioneering fattening scheme are achieving gross margin returns of £199 a head for Pembrokeshire farmers.’
    • ‘This will lead to a continuing build-up of store animals and calves on many farms resulting in labour, feed and housing difficulties.’
    • ‘Newborn buffalo calves, like bovine calves, can succumb in large numbers to viruses, bacteria, and poor nutrition.’
    • ‘He gets top prices for his bull calves at Ballina Mart - last year his bull calves made over 400 Euro with their weight and were sold for bull beef.’
    • ‘The pokey bull calves of dairy cows are slaughtered at 16 to 18 weeks for veal.’
    • ‘There were one hundred and thirty lots in all from bull calves, and heifer calves.’
    • ‘Are cows which provide colostrum for your calves tested for bovine leukosis?’
    • ‘Never come between an excitable cow/heifer and her calf and never ever turn your back on a nervous animal in a small space.’
    • ‘The young and dairy-type Friesian bull calves have dropped back to €50 / head at the low end of the price scale.’
    • ‘He also received second place for his heifer in calf and second for his calf bull.’
    • ‘They raise their own replacement heifers and sell their bull calves to another organic farmer nearby.’
    • ‘He rears 100 bull beef calves, runs a flock of 300 ewes and produces 3,000 turkeys for the Christmas market.’
    • ‘In all 12 heifers and 12 bull calves have qualified for the final.’
    • ‘There will be special arrangements for the movement of young calves, bulls, breeding pigs and probably sheep in the autumn.’
    • ‘Caribou bull cow and two calves skirt the ridge above our camp lake during breakfast.’
    • ‘On April 28 this year, the same cow delivered three Charolais bull calves, any one of which would be an acceptable size single.’
    • ‘On May 10 the men found fourteen bison with two new calves, but the animals fled from the intruders, who could not keep up with them in the slushy snow.’
    1. 1.1The young of some other large mammals, such as elephants, rhinoceroses, large deer and antelopes, and whales.
      • ‘Numerous skeletons of young calves have also been unearthed, many of them nestled next to adult females, no doubt their mothers.’
      • ‘Standard size domestic donkeys are useful for halter-breaking young calves and foals.’
      • ‘The transients ambush them - they have a taste for the gray whale calves' high-energy blubber and protein-rich tongues.’
      • ‘Here, whales bear their calves in warm, sheltered water.’
      • ‘Like the elephant calf in Africa that decided to play football with a crocodile, little realising the danger till the mother elephant shooed it away.’
      • ‘The 2000 birth of a healthy calf to a rhino called Emi at the Cincinnati Zoo in Ohio was the first successful captive delivery in 112 years.’
      • ‘Discover how mother dolphins pass along the secrets of survival to their young, and watch calves as they test their skills at work and at play.’
      • ‘It is a fairly large group, maybe fifty-five individuals, including several adult males and some very young calves.’
      • ‘Gray whale calves are born in the winter after a gestation period of about 13.5 months.’
      • ‘He put no blame on the elephant, saying that the young female was simply trying to defend its territory, along with another elephant with a calf nearby.’
      • ‘The female stays close to the coast in an effort to protect the calf from transient killer whales.’
      • ‘A killer whale calf learned the trick of luring gulls to the surface of the water with fish.’
      • ‘‘One of the whales, who was a calf at the time, is still alive and still roaming around with J pod,’ Margo said.’
      • ‘The lice move from mother to calf and among whales in close contact with each other.’
      • ‘Seconds later, at the edge of visibility, a sperm whale and her calf appeared.’
      • ‘Killing a large whale is too dangerous for the calf, but as a spectator, it picks up lethal techniques like ramming, drowning, and biting the prey.’
      • ‘They observed an orphaned elephant calf being rejected from its herd.’
      • ‘Whale calves also surface in the ring of open water, right next to their mothers.’
      • ‘Neither actual mating of blue whales nor birth of a calf have been observed in modern times, and the breeding grounds for some populations are still unknown.’
      • ‘The whale calf is thought to have become separated from its mother in the lower Thames, where the sighting of another, larger bottlenose whale was reported.’
    2. 1.2
      short for calfskin
      • ‘Made from moose leather with rawhide bindings crisscrossing around the calf they looked like something Shackleton would have improvised adrift on the ice-floes.’
      • ‘The calf and suede styles feature resin hardware.’
  • 2A floating piece of ice detached from an iceberg.

Phrases

  • in (or with) calf

    • (of a cow) pregnant.

      ‘most of the heifers are in calf’
      • ‘So it is natural that cows will be difficult to get in calf if they are losing body condition before insemination and now the scientists have proof that this is so.’
      • ‘Mr Robinson, 36, has a second holding in Kendal and made a licensed movement on welfare grounds of cows in calf from Langcliffe nine days ago.’
      • ‘The female section includes 14 in calf heifers.’
      • ‘We didn't have any problems getting the heifers in calf, but neither were there any with the Holsteins.’
      • ‘Their incorporation into these pedigree herds as suckler dams or resale as in calf cows offers a very lucrative second-hand value.’
      • ‘The overall beef champion and also Champion of Champions at Saturday's East Mainland Show was a two-year-old heifer in calf, owned by John W. Hepburn of Burnside, Tankerness.’
      • ‘You are asking the heifers to grow, go in calf, calf down, produce milk, go back in calf, compete in a competitive grazing environment and continue to do so for a number of lactations.’
      • ‘The champion in the cattle section at Tuesday's Shapinsay show was a black heifer in calf named Tilly, owned by R. J. Johnston of Hewan, Shapinsay.’
      • ‘He favours New Zealand Friesians because, in his opinion, the breed is robust, holds its condition and, above all, gets back in calf easily.’
      • ‘Very often those calved heifers fail to go back in calf easily and become late calvers the following season.’
      • ‘The most visible costs are the A.I. costs, but it can also lead to increased veterinary costs and you have no guarantee that the cow will go in calf to the first straw in the spring.’
      • ‘The Wold Newton herd is flushed with ‘Royal success’, having just won the Senior Bull Championship with Wold Newton Rambo, which is Lot 96 in the sale, and 15 heifers are in calf to him.’
      • ‘Roland has a wonderful selection of cows and calves and cows in calf and there are enquiries from far and wide.’
      • ‘Dry cows and in calf heifers can easily be managed inside as maintenance requirements are relatively low and can easily be met.’
      • ‘As these heifers do not have to be in calf, there is bound to be a drop in the number of quality beef suckler calves produced and a reduction in the supply of our best beef.’
      • ‘Farmers end up wintering cattle that are not in calf and it's less efficient.’
      • ‘In the beef lines Limousins were headed by the in calf heifer Brontemoor Spice Girl, owned by Steve Priestley, owner of a 100-cow breeding herd at Denholme, near Bradford.’
      • ‘Even though labour demanding, it must be done if you are not to ‘lose’ a lot of money by missed heats and a high percentage of cows not in calf.’
      • ‘But if an animal was sick, in calf, had a sore foot, a sore udder or any other ailment, a term of endearment we called them all ‘Molly’.’
      • ‘About 15 top cows will be for sale plus in calf heifers and maiden heifers.’

Origin

Old English cælf, of Germanic origin; related to Dutch kalf and German Kalb.

Pronunciation:

calf

/kɑːf/

Main definitions of calf in English

: calf1calf2

calf2

noun

  • The fleshy part at the back of a person's leg below the knee.

    [as modifier] ‘the calf muscles’
    calves
    • ‘Lengthening the tendon or an attached calf muscle reduces the pressure on the ball of the foot to help prevent and treat diabetic foot ulcers.’
    • ‘From the ankle, the saphenous vein ascends the calf along the border of the gastrocnemius muscle.’
    • ‘The Achilles tendon is the thick, strong tendon that joins the calf muscles to the heel bone.’
    • ‘Exercise in the heat can bring on heat cramps, which usually affect tired muscles in the calves, thighs and shoulders.’
    • ‘Segmental pressures are obtained bilaterally on the lower extremities at the thigh, above the knee, the calf, and the ankle.’
    • ‘Then, begin stretching the plantar fascia and the Achilles tendon, which attaches the calf muscles to the heel bone.’
    • ‘The most crippling injuries were to Simon's right leg, mangled beyond recognition below the knee, the entire calf musculature torn off.’
    • ‘Well actually it's about just letting the calf muscles and the toes be as they are.’
    • ‘It cuts the leg below the calf, and all muscle bellies except those of gastrocnemius are present.’
    • ‘No one really knows what causes these sudden, painful muscle spasms in the calf, the thigh or the arch of the foot.’
    • ‘Obesity that prevents ambulation exacerbates venous hypertension because the calf muscle is not working to keep the veins pumping the blood out of the leg.’
    • ‘In patients with venous insufficiency damage occurs to the veins or calf muscle pump, resulting in high venous pressures in the deep veins.’
    • ‘The devotees were also treated for their excruciating pain in their shoulders, neck, back, thighs, knees, calves, ankle and foot.’
    • ‘A common sprain injury is a torn Achilles tendon, which connects the calf muscles to the heel.’
    • ‘The veins in the deep system drain the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles of the calf.’
    • ‘Each time the calf and thigh muscles contract when walking, veins deep inside the leg are squeezed.’
    • ‘That's partly because you've lost flexibility in the calf and the soleus muscle, which is near the ankle.’
    • ‘I do standing calf raises for gastrocnemius and seated calf raises for soleus muscles.’
    • ‘Using this technique, the surgeon makes an incision in the back of the knee and retracts the calf muscle.’
    • ‘In the legs, the normal action of the calf muscles helps pump the blood back to the heart, usually without difficulty.’

Origin

Middle English: from Old Norse kálfi, of unknown origin.

Pronunciation:

calf

/kɑːf/