Definition of caldera in English:

caldera

noun

  • A large volcanic crater, especially one formed by a major eruption leading to the collapse of the mouth of the volcano.

    • ‘In December, members of the same research team revealed that calderas on five major Mars volcanoes were repeatedly active as little as 2 million years ago.’
    • ‘Eventually the central location within the volcano was again utilized for magma storage and a deep caldera was produced.’
    • ‘The sequential development of multiple summit calderas of shield volcanoes gives clues about how the spatial location of shallow magma chambers evolves with time and how the magma supply into these chambers evolves.’
    • ‘Most of the deposits are classified as gold silver deposits concentrated at volcanic cupolas and calderas.’
    • ‘Almost all of the volcanic rocks within and adjacent to the calderas have been propylitically altered.’
    • ‘Intrusion of more magma into the chambers renewed doming of the collapsed calderas in an episode of resurgence.’
    • ‘Stand anywhere there and look out at the caldera (volcano basin).’
    • ‘One particularly large eruption, about 28 million years ago, left in its wake a huge caldera, or crater-like basin, about 15 km in diameter and about 2 km above sea level.’
    • ‘Instead, Io's surface is dominated by volcanic features, notably gentle shield volcanoes with summit calderas several tens of kilometres across and surrounded by radial lava flows.’
    • ‘Scientifically speaking, Sulphur Springs is a caldera, or collapsed volcanic formation.’
    • ‘Pipe and dyke structures are not obvious in all the mapped calderas, suggesting either that the feeder pipes are below seismic resolution at this structural level, or that they are concentrated on caldera margins.’
    • ‘These volcano and feeder systems have similarities to igneous centres, which also have cone-shaped edifices, calderas and downward tapering cones created during magma chamber collapse and ring-dyke intrusion.’
    • ‘A large body of magma, capped by a hydrothermal system (a zone of pressurized steam and hot water), still exists beneath the caldera.’
    • ‘The structures are bounded by a series of extensional ring faults that exhibit similarities to salt withdrawal basins, caldera collapse features and impact craters.’
    • ‘Mayor Island is a shield volcano with a caldera in the western part of the Bay of Plenty, off the east coast of New Zealand.’
    • ‘This landslide material was then embayed by lava when the central caldera was flooded.’
    • ‘This is in direct contrast to earlier work which argues that these calderas were not united until a central caldera formed late in the volcano's lifespan.’
    • ‘He ends with the story of Anak Krakatoa, the new volcano rising in the caldera of the old volcano. and the way that life is taking hold in a doomed landscape.’
    • ‘Faulting and deformation may be concentrated at a caldera because the caldera structure and associated magmatic system form weak zones in the crust.’
    • ‘This type of volcano is called a caldera, and is one of the most violent.’
    • ‘The presence of the fluid layer makes this whole process comparable with the formation of a caldera by the foundering of the superstructure of a volcano into a void generated by the removal of magma.’
    • ‘Pago is the active vent of a large volcano known as Witori caldera - a collapsed crater that formed during an extremely large explosive eruption about 3,300 years ago.’
    • ‘During resurgent doming, volcanic sediments and postcollapse lavas filled the calderas, resulting in concentric and radial fracturing of the rocks marginal to and within the domal uplift.’
    hollow, bowl, basin, pan, hole, cavity, pocket
    View synonyms

Origin

Late 17th century: from Spanish, from late Latin caldaria boiling pot.

Pronunciation:

caldera

/kɒlˈdɪərə//kɒlˈdɛːrə/