Definition of caldera in English:



  • A large volcanic crater, especially one formed by a major eruption leading to the collapse of the mouth of the volcano.

    • ‘Eventually the central location within the volcano was again utilized for magma storage and a deep caldera was produced.’
    • ‘Pago is the active vent of a large volcano known as Witori caldera - a collapsed crater that formed during an extremely large explosive eruption about 3,300 years ago.’
    • ‘Pipe and dyke structures are not obvious in all the mapped calderas, suggesting either that the feeder pipes are below seismic resolution at this structural level, or that they are concentrated on caldera margins.’
    • ‘A large body of magma, capped by a hydrothermal system (a zone of pressurized steam and hot water), still exists beneath the caldera.’
    • ‘Almost all of the volcanic rocks within and adjacent to the calderas have been propylitically altered.’
    • ‘The presence of the fluid layer makes this whole process comparable with the formation of a caldera by the foundering of the superstructure of a volcano into a void generated by the removal of magma.’
    • ‘One particularly large eruption, about 28 million years ago, left in its wake a huge caldera, or crater-like basin, about 15 km in diameter and about 2 km above sea level.’
    • ‘The structures are bounded by a series of extensional ring faults that exhibit similarities to salt withdrawal basins, caldera collapse features and impact craters.’
    • ‘This type of volcano is called a caldera, and is one of the most violent.’
    • ‘This is in direct contrast to earlier work which argues that these calderas were not united until a central caldera formed late in the volcano's lifespan.’
    • ‘Stand anywhere there and look out at the caldera (volcano basin).’
    • ‘In December, members of the same research team revealed that calderas on five major Mars volcanoes were repeatedly active as little as 2 million years ago.’
    • ‘Instead, Io's surface is dominated by volcanic features, notably gentle shield volcanoes with summit calderas several tens of kilometres across and surrounded by radial lava flows.’
    • ‘He ends with the story of Anak Krakatoa, the new volcano rising in the caldera of the old volcano. and the way that life is taking hold in a doomed landscape.’
    • ‘This landslide material was then embayed by lava when the central caldera was flooded.’
    • ‘The sequential development of multiple summit calderas of shield volcanoes gives clues about how the spatial location of shallow magma chambers evolves with time and how the magma supply into these chambers evolves.’
    • ‘During resurgent doming, volcanic sediments and postcollapse lavas filled the calderas, resulting in concentric and radial fracturing of the rocks marginal to and within the domal uplift.’
    • ‘Scientifically speaking, Sulphur Springs is a caldera, or collapsed volcanic formation.’
    • ‘Faulting and deformation may be concentrated at a caldera because the caldera structure and associated magmatic system form weak zones in the crust.’
    • ‘Most of the deposits are classified as gold silver deposits concentrated at volcanic cupolas and calderas.’
    • ‘Mayor Island is a shield volcano with a caldera in the western part of the Bay of Plenty, off the east coast of New Zealand.’
    • ‘Intrusion of more magma into the chambers renewed doming of the collapsed calderas in an episode of resurgence.’
    • ‘These volcano and feeder systems have similarities to igneous centres, which also have cone-shaped edifices, calderas and downward tapering cones created during magma chamber collapse and ring-dyke intrusion.’
    hollow, bowl, basin, pan, hole, cavity, pocket
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Late 17th century: from Spanish, from late Latin caldaria ‘boiling pot’.