Definition of calcaneus in English:


(also calcaneum)


  • The large bone forming the heel. It articulates with the cuboid bone of the foot and the talus bone of the ankle, and the Achilles tendon is attached to it.

    • ‘Pronation of the foot will make the deformity worse by increasing the cavus and locking the adducted calcaneus under the talus, while the midfoot and forefoot are twisted into eversion.’
    • ‘The plantar fascia is a thickened fibrous aponeurosis that originates from the medial tubercle of the calcaneus and runs forward to form the longitudinal foot arch.’
    • ‘Because of the Achilles tendon's insertion into the calcaneus, the tendon can be exposed to forces secondary to subtalar motion.’
    • ‘A longitudinal incision was made midway between the lateral border of the Achilles tendon and the superolateral crest of the calcaneus, with a slight anterior curve.’
    • ‘Compression of the bursa between the calcaneus and the Achilles tendon occurs every time the ankle is dorsiflexed, and in a runner the repetitions are countless, particularly with uphill running where ankle dorsiflexion is increased.’
    • ‘Anchor suture devices were used to fix each tendon end to the talus or to the calcaneus at the original insertion of the ligaments.’
    • ‘In these patients, we have reinserted the Achilles tendon in the calcaneus with two to five bone anchors, depending on the amount of tendon disinserted.’
    • ‘In this series of operations, we used suture anchor devices to fix the free ends of the split patellar tendon to the talus and the calcaneus.’
    • ‘For purposes of analysis, stress injuries to bone were grouped into one of the following categories: femur, tibia, fibula, navicular bone, calcaneus, and forefoot (metatarsal bones and phalanx).’
    • ‘The posterior heel includes the retrocalcaneal bursa, which is located between the calcaneus and the Achilles tendon insertion site, and the retroachilles bursa, which is located between the Achilles tendon and the skin.’
    • ‘The second specimen sustained a comminuted vertical sustentaculum tali fracture of the calcaneus involving the posterior and middle facets.’
    • ‘There are other slips that arise from the lower part of the fibula behind peroneus brevis and are attached to the lateral aspect of the calcaneus, to the cuboid, or into the dorsal digital expansion of the fifth toe.’
    • ‘In this procedure, the proximal part of the peroneus brevis tendon is routed through the calcaneus and attached to the distal fibula.’
    • ‘The peroneal trochlea of the calcaneus is variable in size and shape and presents a slight groove for the peroneal muscles.’
    • ‘A muscle closely related to flexor hallucis longus is fibulotarsalis, which arises from the fibula and inserts, via the sustentaculum, to the underside of calcaneus and the navicular bones.’
    • ‘The fiber bundles that make up plantaris give rise to a flat, short, fusiform belly and are united to a narrow tendon that extends along the medial edge of the calcaneal tendon to the posterior surface of the calcaneus where it attaches.’
    • ‘The Achilles tendon spans two joints and connects the calcaneus to the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, comprising the largest and strongest muscle complex in the calf.’
    • ‘Some patients may present with tendinopathy at the insertion of the Achilles tendon on the calcaneus.’
    • ‘Patients with plantar fasciitis present with heel pain, but on examination the anteromedial aspect of the heel at the origin of the plantar fascia on the calcaneus will be more tender than the central area.’
    • ‘The plantar fascia, a band of connective tissue deep to the fat layer of the base (plantar aspect) of the foot, spans from the medial plantar tuberosity of the calcaneus to the base of the digits.’


Mid 18th century: from Latin.