nounmass nounNZ, Australian
The practice of kidnapping Pacific Islanders and using them as forced labour, in particular on sugar and cotton plantations in Australia.‘the island's population was severely depleted by blackbirding’
- ‘During the 1860s, planters in Australia, Fiji, New Caledonia, and the Samoa Islands, in need of laborers, encouraged a long-term indentured labor trade called "blackbirding."’
- ‘The technique of recruiting them, sometimes by fraud or force, was known as blackbirding.’
- ‘There is no material culture explicitly connected to the period of blackbirding and the sandalwood trade, colonial structures of administration under British and French rule.’
- ‘The recruitment of island labour was called "blackbirding".’
- ‘This was the era of "blackbirding.’
- ‘They made little progress at first, however, because "blackbirding" - the often brutal recruitment of laborers for the sugar plantations in Queensland and Fiji - led to a series of reprisals and massacres.’
- ‘The southwest Pacific would become a recruiting ground for cheap contract labour, recalling the "blackbirding" of the nineteenth century.’
- ‘During the nineteenth century, British and French settlers established a trade in "blackbirding" - the abduction of islanders for forced labour in Australia and Fiji.’
- ‘In the 19th century, the essence of "blackbirding" was the exploitation of the Islanders' labour for the development of the wealth of Australian imperialism.’
- ‘Settlers exploited the sandalwood on the islands and established a trade in "blackbirding" - the abduction of islanders for forced labour in Australia and Fiji.’
Late 19th century: from blackbird in the sense ‘a Polynesian person on a slave ship’.
We take a look at several popular, though confusing, punctuation marks.