Definition of battery in English:

battery

noun

  • 1A container consisting of one or more cells, in which chemical energy is converted into electricity and used as a source of power:

    ‘a camera battery’
    [as modifier] ‘battery power’
    • ‘For short missions, power can be provided by batteries or fuel cells, which produce power from chemical energy.’
    • ‘Clocks go faster or slower over time, batteries and power sources go dead, or important time changes, such as daylight saving, can be forgotten.’
    • ‘An electromagnet starts with a battery (or some other source of power) and a wire.’
    • ‘The product is advertised to operate using static electricity only and requiring no batteries or other power sources.’
    • ‘While the new electrodes have not yet been tested in fuel cells or batteries, Liu expects they will significantly boost energy output.’
    • ‘The batteries that power the electric motor cost thousands.’
    • ‘Standard batteries can power digital cellphones for several hours of transmission or days of standby operation.’
    • ‘At low speeds, the car uses only the electric motor powered by batteries.’
    • ‘The redox reaction in the battery is the source of the electrical energy; batteries are voltaic cells.’
    • ‘These engines also could provide electrical power instead of relying on solar cells or batteries.’
    • ‘If there is no electrical hookup, it can use the energy from a car battery, solar cell, or bicycle generator.’
    • ‘The electricity that we get from power outlets and batteries can power all different kinds of devices.’
    • ‘However, the short and unpredictable life spans of existing chemical batteries means that new power supply solutions are needed.’
    • ‘The cells in a car battery generate electricity with a chemical reaction between a lead plate and a lead dioxide plate that are bathed in acid.’
    • ‘Hidden within cell phones, laptops, and digital cameras, lithium-ion batteries increasingly power the world.’
    • ‘If there's no electricity, how do you get the energy to power the batteries for the cameras?’
    • ‘Compared to batteries, fuel cells will be smaller, much lighter and instantly rechargeable.’
    • ‘A quartz watch powered by a battery is constantly powered and tells accurate time all the time and do not need time adjustment.’
    • ‘Some analysts foresee fuel cells replacing batteries in consumer electronics and other applications before long.’
    • ‘You can see why there is so much excitement around fuel cells right now - fuel cells solve the battery problem.’
    cell, accumulator, power unit
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  • 2A fortified emplacement for heavy guns:

    ‘anti-aircraft missile batteries’
    ‘a mobile battery of 105 mm guns’
    • ‘The Italian army has installed anti-aircraft missile batteries around Rome, and Nato is sending a surveillance plane to overfly the city.’
    • ‘The first fortification was the emplacement of anti-aircraft batteries and machine-guns for defense of the skies.’
    • ‘In this war, the Patriot missile batteries were used in a really innovative way.’
    • ‘They began to take out various Patriot missile batteries and various boats patrolling up and down the river.’
    • ‘Right around me there are Patriot anti-aircraft missile batteries.’
    • ‘Mrs Reston was one of the last to leave, and carried her son across the battery, under heavy bombardment, to the waiting boat.’
    • ‘To this day, a casual walk along the Normandy coast reveals scores of entrenched batteries and nearly monumental emplacements of concrete.’
    • ‘The lights on the side were on, and it seemed its radar dishes were rotating, plus several of the unmanned turrets and missile batteries on the side were armed.’
    • ‘At five o'clock, a convoy even brought a heavy missile battery.’
    • ‘These new air defense units are a composite of Patriot, Avenger, and Stinger Missile batteries.’
    • ‘The US coastguard imposed a three-mile boat exclusion zone around the island and Patriot anti-aircraft missile batteries were installed on beaches.’
    • ‘We will be assisted by heavy artillery-grade missile batteries that launch from further inside the complex.’
    • ‘The shore batteries took a heavy toll of the landing craft, particularly at Westkapelle, and supporting armour bogged down in the soft clay.’
    • ‘To frustrate airborne landings, obstacles were set up, areas flooded and a nightmare of antiaircraft batteries were ready.’
    • ‘Over a quarter served in anti-aircraft batteries where they came under fire and operated searchlights and targeting instruments.’
    • ‘Whenever we saw an anti-aircraft battery or munitions dump, we took it out.’
    • ‘The missile batteries had ceased firing as the shorter range made them less effective.’
    • ‘I gritted my teeth and swallowed hard, my thoughts briefly turning to the heavy missile batteries and the people who crewed them.’
    • ‘My first command was an antiaircraft battery in the Washington-Baltimore defense perimeter.’
    • ‘Private Bergot is not in the trenches like his higher-ranking officers, and he is not manning an anti-aircraft battery or a cannon.’
    1. 2.1 An artillery subunit of guns, men, and vehicles.
      • ‘Having readied their batteries for war, commanders now had to deal with preserving the peace.’
      • ‘Wouldn't an artillery battery or a couple of guns have required troops to defend it?’
      • ‘The task force later lost the howitzer battery, separate infantry platoon, and engineer platoon.’
      • ‘The artillery batteries ' duties quickly changed to extending, improving and maintaining a brigade-sized defensive perimeter.’
      • ‘The disappearance of the classical front line required that artillery batteries fight as infantry in the defense of their guns.’
      • ‘The mortar platoon is the personal artillery battery for the battalion commander.’
      • ‘It was not uncommon for a brigade to have a cavalry troop or artillery battery as part of its organic makeup.’
      • ‘The fire support battalion will consolidate the two mortar platoons of the original battalions into batteries.’
      • ‘The number of rapidly deployable mobile batteries used on each mission by the Army will depend on the operational requirements.’
      • ‘Regiments would have an organic six-gun artillery battery and a reconnaissance troop.’
      • ‘I also compare between women who serve in an artillery battery and women who serve in an infantry company.’
      • ‘This consisted of 10 regular and 18 irregular regiments of cavalry, 74 regiments of infantry, and 22 artillery batteries.’
      • ‘However, the Panzer Regiment destroyed a motorized column and an artillery battery before the French could withdraw.’
      • ‘Even in engaging artillery batteries, the aim was primarily to wipe out the crews.’
      • ‘Anti-aircraft fire required tables that were far more detailed than those used by field artillery batteries.’
      • ‘There are no heavy battalions or massed batteries in this picture.’
      • ‘Ocean carries an artillery battery and can be used to supply the paratroopers, who are at present lightly armed, with more weapons.’
      • ‘Meanwhile the enemy had with astonishing rapidity brought a number of powerful batteries of artillery into position behind the Marre ridge, on the western bank of the river.’
      • ‘The first unit that they saw was an artillery battery on the other side of an open field.’
      • ‘Numerically, each of its three cavalry squadrons has the equivalent of a tank battalion, a mechanized battalion, and an artillery battery.’
      gun emplacement, artillery unit
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  • 3A set of similar units of equipment, typically when connected together:

    ‘a battery of equipment to monitor blood pressure’
    • ‘There is also a battery of powerful surveillance and monitoring equipment located inside and on the perimeter wall of Grosvenor Road barracks.’
    • ‘Rolling to his right, he took cover behind a battery of computer equipment.’
    • ‘Today you would need a battery of electronic equipment to measure the difference in noise and vibration between, say, a Focus and a Mondeo.’
    array, set, bank, group, row, line, line-up, raft, collection, assortment
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    1. 3.1 An extensive series, sequence, or range of things:
      ‘children are given a battery of tests’
      • ‘No single lab test helps with the diagnosis; however, a battery of tests should be performed to rule out medical complications of starvation.’
      • ‘An important reason for including this test in our battery was that there is evidence to suggest that performance on this test is strongly related to reading comprehension.’
      • ‘Well, their total scores on the Wechsler battery of mental tests correlate at 0.69.’
      • ‘They also completed several batteries of tests and scales to help gauge their quality of life, mental and physical functioning and mood.’
      • ‘A battery of films is lined up for release next week.’
      • ‘Atopy was assessed by skin prick tests with a battery of 10 common inhalant allergens.’
      • ‘Gladys was moved to the cardiology ward but again, despite a further battery of tests (including repeating earlier ones) no one could say for sure what caused her pain.’
      • ‘At six months, a single leg hop for distance was added to the battery of tests.’
      • ‘Each gambler is subjected to a battery of psychological tests prior to the treatment program, and again at the completion of the program.’
      • ‘Each patient underwent the same battery of tests before surgery, at discharge, three months after surgery, and two years after surgery.’
      • ‘Comprehensive batteries of tests have been developed to provide quantitative measures of fluency and comprehension and to assess a range of linguistic abilities.’
      • ‘Our extensive battery of outcome measures, which focus mainly on physical benefits, is unlikely to capture the full extent of these apparent social benefits.’
      • ‘In these experiments, test subjects with maladies ranging from severe brain trauma to bipolar disorder undergo a battery of visual tests.’
      • ‘You may undergo a battery of diagnostic tests and try a variety of treatment methods.’
      • ‘A battery of neuropsychological tests were also administered by IVR with a standard touch-tone telephone.’
      • ‘A battery of psychological tests administered to me at this time tells the story of my mental status in a stark manner that clearly outlines my assets and deficits.’
      • ‘Children completed a battery of neuropsychological tests in the areas of processing speed, vigilance, and inhibition.’
      • ‘If you're a student that's been asked to run a battery of qualitative organic tests, you should ask for a refund of your tuition.’
      • ‘The battery consisted of seven tests that were enumerated according to the construct they tapped.’
      • ‘As a part of a concussion preventive program, they routinely do a battery of baseline psychological and brain function tests on all entrants.’
      series, sequence, range, set, cycle, chain, string, progression, succession
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  • 4British [usually as modifier] A series of small cages for the intensive rearing of farm animals, especially calves and poultry:

    ‘battery farming’
    ‘battery hens’
    • ‘But, if animal welfare is the aim, Parliament should be legislating on intensive animal farming methods and battery chickens raised in windowless warehouses.’
    • ‘Newer European battery cages with manure belts provide a system for daily clean out of manure.’
    • ‘These days it's all factory farms and abattoirs and battery chickens, but in the old days farming was much more personal and friendly.’
    • ‘To teach our young people in a school like that, to be reared like battery hens, would be folly.’
    • ‘Here in Australia, approximately 10-million battery hens are caged for life.’
    • ‘Vegetarian, vegan, and animal-rights movements have prompted Sweden to become the first E.U. member to outlaw battery cages for hens.’
    • ‘Many of today's farming techniques are not natural, regarding GM crops, battery hens and such, but many of us do not think of these as wrong.’
    • ‘Despite this, battery cage egg production has increased over the last 50 years.’
    • ‘Now thousands of battery farm birds in Scotland are set to escape the chop thanks to a rescue service being set up by an animal lover.’
    • ‘With laying hens confined so closely in battery cages, the possibility of cross-contamination between animals must surely be very high.’
    • ‘The foundation has been protesting over the past 30 years against the selling of eggs from battery cages.’
    • ‘Most birds reared for food are grown in battery farms, and so are kept indoors anyway.’
    • ‘It is calling on politicians to support legislation to ban battery cages, which it says cause great suffering to hens.’
    • ‘The European Commission recently announced an end to the cramped conditions suffered by hens housed in battery cages.’
    • ‘So nobody in Europe is now allowed to do that, and we also have legislation which is going to result in the phasing out of battery cages for laying hens.’
    • ‘If it's really about animal cruelty, why aren't we banning battery hens?’
    • ‘One answer to this objection is that most farmers have their hens securely locked away in battery cages with a floor surface the size of a piece of A4 paper so they are none too vulnerable to fox attack.’
    • ‘Farming hundreds of thousands of fish in tiny cages makes battery hen operations look positively organic by comparison.’
    • ‘Egg-laying hens are confined to battery cages.’
    • ‘Switzerland's elimination of battery cages increased the Swiss egg industry's profitability and its acceptability to consumers.’
  • 5Law
    [mass noun] The infliction of unlawful personal violence on another person, even where the contact does no physical harm:

    ‘any act which puts a person in immediate and reasonable fear of battery’
    [count noun] ‘most batteries involve an assault’
    • ‘Kantor has listed three of them in her complaint: assault, battery, and intentional infliction of emotional distress.’
    • ‘That would be a criminal action, namely assault (rather than battery which includes physical contact).’
    • ‘Now he awaits trial for first-degree murder, attempted murder, and aggravated battery.’
    • ‘The guy has previous convictions for kidnapping, battery and assault.’
    • ‘In most cases of battery or actual bodily harm the causal connection will be plain, but cases involving drugs have presented difficulties.’
    violence, assault, mugging
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  • 6Baseball
    the batteryThe pitcher and the catcher.

    • ‘I was all excited to report on the fact Philadelphia started an all-Independent Baseball battery yesterday for its Grapefruit League game against Cleveland in Winter Haven, FL.’
    • ‘The defensive baseball positions can be divided into three main categories: 1) the battery, 2) infielders, 3) outfielders.’
    • ‘By "Clicking On" the pitcher's name you can see their battery mates for all of their starts as well as their shutouts.’

Origin

Middle English: from Old French baterie, from battre to strike, from Latin battuere. The original sense was ‘metal articles wrought by hammering’, later ‘a number of pieces of artillery used together’, whence ‘a number of Leyden jars connected up so as to discharge simultaneously’ (mid 18th century), giving rise to battery.

Pronunciation:

battery

/ˈbat(ə)ri/