Definition of anneal in English:



[with object]
  • 1Heat (metal or glass) and allow it to cool slowly, in order to remove internal stresses and toughen it.

    ‘copper tubes must be annealed after bending or they will be brittle’
    ‘the chimneys of annealing furnaces’
    figurative ‘Dr Lowenstein, annealed to hostility, looked at me coolly’
    • ‘He says bright annealed stainless steel is generally specified for medical applications.’
    • ‘Unlike annealed stampings, fully hardened electroforms need no heat treating - a process that can distort finished shapes.’
    • ‘Ferritic and pearlitic malleable irons are both produced by annealing white iron of controlled composition.’
    • ‘The white irons of suitable composition can be annealed to give malleable cast iron.’
    • ‘The weldment must be stress relived or annealed after welding.’
    • ‘The template and primer were annealed by briefly heating at 80°C and cooling to room temperature.’
    • ‘After extrusion, the tubes are annealed to remove the work hardening and provide the softness or limpness needed for good collapsibility.’
    • ‘Beta annealing is done at temperatures above the transus of the alloy being annealed.’
    • ‘If machining is required the weld deposits should be annealed and heat treated after machining.’
    • ‘The most common heat treatments of gray iron are annealing and stress relieving.’
    • ‘After being annealed, the work metal is quenched in water to free it from particles of the salt mixture.’
    • ‘In heat treatable alloys, annealing also may be accompanied by precipitation and changes in solute concentration.’
    • ‘Following welding the weldment should be annealed and then heat treated to the desired strength level.’
    • ‘The modern range of machinery includes five-axis HSC centres and stretch forming machines, annealing furnaces and chemical milling plants.’
    • ‘Mattinson's idea was to first heat or anneal the zircons, sealing off the least damaged areas of the crystal, then using a strong reagent, hydrofluoric acid, to eat away the heavily damaged areas.’
    • ‘The ‘EZ Beader’ from PARAGON is a new bead kiln designed to anneal glass beads to prevent breakage during cooling.’
    • ‘The cold rolling process required that the steel be annealed or softened to keep the metal flexible and not brittle.’
    • ‘Welding of cold-worked alloys anneals the heat-affected zone and eliminates the strength produced by cold working.’
    • ‘For the high-silicon nodular irons, high-temperature heat treatment is advised in all cases to anneal any pearlite and stabilize the casting against growth in service.’
    • ‘The heat of welding will anneal the copper in the heat-affected area adjacent to the weld and reduce the strength provided by cold working.’
    solidify, set, become hard, become solid, congeal, clot, coagulate, stiffen, thicken, cake, freeze, bake, crystallize
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  • 2Biochemistry
    Recombine (DNA) in the double-stranded form.

    • ‘Sense and antisense RNAs were annealed to create double-stranded RNA by heating to 93°C for 30 s, followed by twenty-five 30-s incubations at 2° decrements for each incubation.’
    • ‘The oligonucleotides were annealed by heating the solution of self-complementary oligonucleotides to 94°C using a heat block, and then cooling it to 30°C over the course of 2 h. Annealed DNA was stored at - 80°C until use.’
    • ‘A stock solution of double stranded DNA was prepared by annealing the two single strands in 100 mM. pH 7.2 sodium phosphate buffer at a DNA concentration of 14 M (in helices).’
    • ‘A primer is annealed upstream of the divergent site and extended one base at a time, with the number of nucleotides incorporated at each position proportional to the number of transcripts in the sample.’
    • ‘Consistent with the results of SUGIYAMA et al. 1998, 100% of the DNA was annealed by 2 min when 20 nM Rad 52 was included in the reaction.’
    • ‘DNAs were P-labeled in vitro by random priming and were annealed to electrophoretically fractionated DNA preparations that had been alkali transferred to Hybond N + nylon filters.’
    • ‘The one strand of RNA is annealed with its complementary strand of DNA, which causes the other strand of DNA to be displaced from the helix.’
    • ‘A mutagenic oligo containing one of the mutations was annealed to a genome carrying the second mutation, and the oligo was extended using T4 DNA polymerase, essentially as in Sambrook, Fritsch, and Maniatis.’
    • ‘Equal amounts of each RNA were mixed, denatured, and annealed by slow cooling.’
    • ‘The following oligonucleotide pairs were annealed to form double-stranded DNA and coinjected into worms along with the DNA components of the lacI / lacO system.’
    • ‘These primers were annealed to total RNA from annular cartilage and kidney and extended in the 5’ direction with reverse transcriptase.’
    • ‘Two single-stranded oligos, GAGAEXHO and GAGAESAL, were annealed to generate a double-stranded oligo with XhoI and SalI cohesive ends.’


Old English onǣlan, from on + ǣlan ‘burn, bake’ from āl ‘fire, burning’. The original sense was ‘set on fire’, hence (in late Middle English)‘subject to fire, alter by heating’.