Definition of anhydride in English:

anhydride

noun

Chemistry
  • 1The compound obtained by removing the elements of water from a particular acid:

    ‘sulphur trioxide is the anhydride of sulphuric acid’
    • ‘The product formed is termed a mixed anhydride because the two groups on either side of the (OC-O-CO) linkage are different.’
    • ‘Greater problems arise from the hardener component of the resins, typically polyamine or anhydrides, which can displace ligands from TL materials based on metal complexes.’
    • ‘Primary amides are prepared by reacting ammonia or amines with acid chlorides, anhydrides, or esters.’
    • ‘The isocyanate fragment, anhydrides, and some substituted aromatic fragments are electrophilic functionalities which can react with nucleophilic moieties, such as amino groups of proteins.’
    • ‘An example of this type of adhesive is polyimide that is formed by the polymerization reaction of an aromatic amine with an aromatic anhydride.’
    • ‘This review of chemical monitoring of agents that induce OA emphasizes the progress being made in developing highly sensitive detection methods for certain compounds such as diisocyanates, formaldehyde, and anhydrides.’
    • ‘The energy for the reaction is provided by the high-energy anhydride of carbamoyl phosphate.’
    • ‘Acid anhydride bonds have a high DG 0’ for hydrolysis imparting upon them a high potential to transfer the phosphates to other molecules.’
    • ‘Imide resins are prepared by the condensation of an anhydride and diamine, via a polyamic acid intermediate.’
    • ‘Many hydrolytic enzymes are thought to utilize divalent, dinuclear metal ion complexes to catalyze hydrolysis of phosphate esters and phosphoric anhydrides of biological substrates such as ATP and DNA.’
    • ‘There followed a rapid succession of clinical studies dealing with OA induced by a variety of chemicals including isocyanates, drugs, colophony, and acid anhydrides.’
    • ‘Triflic anhydride, and its hydrolysis product, the viciously strong triflic acid, are notorious plastic-eaters and cap-softeners.’
    • ‘Nonmetal oxides that form acidic solutions when dissolved in water are called acid anhydrides.’
    • ‘Process for modification of polyphenylene ether or related polymers with a cyclic acid anhydride and the use thereof in modified, high temperature rigid polymer of vinyl substituted aromatics’
    • ‘Because of this behavior upon hydrolysis, they are known as basic anhydrides.’
    • ‘A total of 100 [micro] g of satratoxin in 100 [micro] l pyridine was reacted with 2 mg of succinic anhydride in a 45 [degrees] C water bath with off-and-on vortexing.’
    • ‘Types of binders Alkyd: Produced by condensation reactions between polycarboxylic acids and polyhydric alcohols - often phthalic acid or anhydride and glycerol.’
    • ‘The carboxyl group is fairly reactive, and carboxyl group-containing compounds can undergo nucleophilic substitution to form many useful derivatives such as acid chlorides, anhydrides, esters, and amides.’
    • ‘High temperatures and/or little oxygen favor formation of the less oxidized oxide, e.g., CO. Many nonmetal oxides react with water to form acids; these substances are called acid anhydrides.’
    • ‘A primary alcohol can be condensed with succinic anhydride to form a hemisuccinate intermediate.’
    1. 1.1[usually with modifier] An organic compound containing the group —C(O)OC(O)—, derived from a carboxylic acid:
      ‘maleic anhydride’
      • ‘Similar to nitrous acid, nitric oxide gives rise to reactive nitrous anhydride that can induce nitrosative deamination of DNA bases.’
      • ‘Cigarette smoking has been reported to be associated with the development of OA in workers exposed to platinum salts and anhydride compounds, which are chemicals that cause asthma through an IgE mechanism.’
      • ‘We wished to evaluate the efficacy of Pul8 photosensitizer in the induction of apoptosis because its anhydride group may provide the possibility of coupling this photosensitizer to cell-targeting agents like antibodies.’
      • ‘After evaporating excess reagent, the residue was acylated for 10 min at 150°C using 120 mm heptafluorobutyric anhydride.’
      • ‘Water must be strictly avoided in this reaction, as it can destroy both the chloroformate reactant and the anhydride product.’
      • ‘We blocked glass surfaces with 175 mM succinic anhydride in 1-methyl - 2-pyrrolidinone and 44 mM sodium borate.’
      • ‘Water-soluble compounds derived from homopolymer or copolymer of maleic anhydride, and applications of the said compounds to supporting biological molecules’
      • ‘Protectant for irritated skin containing polyethyleneglycols, polyvinylether salt anhydride and polyvinylpyrrolidone’
      • ‘A gas chromatography method recommended by NIOSH for trimellitic anhydride should be adaptable to organic anhydrides that can be volatilized without decomposition.’
      • ‘The energy is stored in the phosphoric acid-sulphuric anhydride bond of the reaction product, 5'-adenylylsulphate, allowing sulphate to undergo further reactions.’
      • ‘But his most important research before the changes brought about by World War I concerned the rates of hydration of carboxylic anhydrides, using conductimetric analysis to follow the reactions.’
      • ‘The binding strength of FN toward the substrate was adjusted using a set of thin films of different alternating maleic anhydride copolymers containing comonomers with varied alkyl chain length.’
      • ‘The extracts obtained were prefiltered through glass wool and sodium sulfate anhydride and filtered by column chromatography (clean-up performed using sodium sulfate anhydride and Celite 545).’
      • ‘The pigments were reconstituted by adding p-coumaric anhydride.’
      • ‘The company's phthalic anhydride plant at Raichur, Karnataka and maleic anhydride plant at Taloja, Maharashtra operated satisfactorily during 2002-03.’
      • ‘By that it was concluded that the used maleic anhydride copolymer thin films allow for a substrate-protein interaction in a controlled manner.’
      • ‘Before deprotection and cleavage, the peptides were succinylated at the N-terminus using succinic anhydride in dimethylformamide containing an equivalent of diisopropylethylamine.’
      • ‘Autoclaving induced hydrolysis of the anhydride moieties to provide a surface exclusively bearing carboxylic acid groups, which are fully dissociated at the pH of the cell culture medium.’

Origin

Mid 19th century: from Greek anudros (see anhydrous)+ -ide.

Pronunciation:

anhydride

/anˈhʌɪdrʌɪd/