The angle which an incident line or ray makes with a perpendicular to the surface at the point of incidence.
- ‘We adjusted the angles of incidence of the laser beam such that total internal reflection took place at the interface of the quartz slide and the sample solution.’
- ‘Since MLD coatings produce relatively narrow reflecting bands in the DUV, it is also important to measure the coated optics at the laser wavelength and the angle of incidence at which the optics will be used.’
- ‘The amount of refraction is dependent upon the angle of incidence and the wavelength of the light.’
- ‘This offset depends on the angle of incidence, the index of refraction, and is directly proportional to the thickness of the slab.’
- ‘The reflected light is collected at the same angle as the angle of incidence, follows an equivalent mirror path, and is directed onto a narrow band mercury-cadmium-telluride detector.’
We take a look at several popular, though confusing, punctuation marks.