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- ‘Parsimony analyses recover a paraphyletic Rotifera, where a bdelloid rotifer and acanthocephalans form a monophyletic clade.’
- ‘However, among helminth parasites, e.g., trematodes, cestodes, nematodes, and acanthocephalans, this is not the case.’
- ‘The inferred phylogenetic relationships between acanthocephalans and rotifers differ appreciably.’
- ‘This constraint may limit acanthocephalan lineages to particular arthropod hosts, whereas the use of particular vertebrate hosts may be more free to vary.’
- ‘Unlike the situation in nematodes and platyhelminths, substantial evidence supports a close phylogenetic affinity of acanthocephalans to the predominately free-living rotifers.’
- ‘The acanthocephalan Leptorhynchoides is a parasite of vertebrate carnivores which looks a little like a nemertine worm with training wheels.’
- ‘Third, substantial phylogenetic evidence from both morphology and molecular data indicates that acanthocephalans have a close evolutionary relationship with Rotifera.’
- ‘Alewives caught off the Atlantic coast were found to host the following parasites: acanthocephalans, cestode, trematodes, copepods, and nematodes.’
- ‘Information on 113 trematode, 86 cestode, 13 acanthocephalan, 37 nematode, 5 leech, 12 mite, and 15 lice species is included.’
- ‘Other animals with a pseudocoel, such as rotifers and acanthocephalans, appear to be more closely related to Lophotrochozoa, a large alliance of protostomes that includes molluscs, annelids, brachiopods, etc.’
- ‘In addition, I reexamine the controversy regarding the relationships of acanthocephalans and rotifers using all available 18S rRNA sequences.’
- ‘Maximum-parsimony and maximum-likelihood inferred trees differ significantly with regard to relationships among acanthocephalans and rotifers.’
- ‘For example, in some morphologically based studies the issue is whether the lemnisci and proboscis of acanthocephalans are homologous to the hypodermic cushions and apical rostrum of bdelloids.’
- ‘The solution of several apicomplexan, acanthocephalan and trematode parasites to this problem is a particularly efficient yet improbable one.’
- ‘The study of Garey et al., which used two genes (18S rRNA and mt 16S rRNA) and B. plicatilis, yielded a tree in which acanthocephalans cluster as modified bdelloids.’
- ‘Guidance and encouragement for my research involving acanthocephalans has been provided by Steven A. Nadler.’
- ‘Challenges-Rotifers appear to be very different from acanthocephalans.’
- ‘Many sea otters died from being infected by a parasitic acanthocephalan worm found in sand crabs the sea otters ate when other more natural prey was scarce.’
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